Moreira FA, Aguiar DC, Guimaraes FS. Anxiolytic-like effect of cannabidiol in the rat Vogel conflict test. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006;30(8):1466-71. View abstract.
Capano A, Weaver R, Burkman E. Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study. Postgrad Med. 2020;132(1):56-61. View abstract.
Arout CA, Haney M, Herrmann ES, Bedi G, Cooper ZD. The dose-dependent analgesic effects, abuse liability, safety and tolerability of oral cannabidiol in healthy humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021. View abstract.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Freeman TP, Hindocha C, Baio G, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis use disorder: a phase 2a, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, adaptive Bayesian trial. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7(10):865-874. View abstract.
Iuvone T, Esposito G, De Filippis D, et al. Cannabidiol: a promising new drug for neurodegenerative disorders? CNS Neurosci Ther 2009;15(1):65-75. View abstract.
McAllister SD, Murase R, Christian RT, et al. Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011;129(1):37-47. View abstract.
Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Martin-Santos, R., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., McGuire, P., and Fusar-Poli, P. Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(7):515-523. View abstract.
But it wasn’t until June 25, 2018, that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) recognized cannabidiol as a medicine by approving Epidiolex, an almost pure pharmaceutical CBD formulation, as a treatment for two severe pediatric seizure disorders, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.
But most health professionals know little about CBD or cannabis therapeutics and they lack sufficient expertise to adequately counsel patients regarding dosage, modes of administration, CBD / THC synergies, and any risk factors, including interactions with other drugs.
CBD and THC interact with our bodies in a variety of ways. One of the main ways is by mimicking and augmenting the effects of the compounds in our bodies called “endogenous cannabinoids” – so named because of their similarity to compounds found in the cannabis plant. These “endocannabinoids” are part of what scientists refer to as the “endocannabinoid system.”
Extensive scientific research – much of it sponsored by the U.S. government – and mounting anecdotal accounts from patients and physicians highlight CBD ’s potential as a treatment for a wide range of maladies, including (but not limited to):
Many hemp-derived CBD oil products are mislabeled as to cannabidiol and THC content. And poorly processed CBD oil may be tainted with toxic solvent residues, pesticides, corn syrup, artificial flavors and colors, and other contaminants.
Combine THC and CBD to fully enjoy the entourage effect .
The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol is a non-intoxicating molecule that results from the heating, or decarboxylation , of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). Most cannabis cultivars have lower concentrations of CBD than THC. However, following an explosive discovery in 2009 , droves of CBD-rich cultivars began cropping up across the US.
What is CBD?
CBD is the yang to THC’s yin; it may calm anxiety and elevate your level of chill without intoxication.
(Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps) Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Industrial hemp contains far less CBD by weight than CBD-rich cultivars such as Harlequin or Sour Tsunami. A single 10 milliliter dose of CBD requires the cultivation and extraction of significantly more hemp than whole-plant marijuana, thus raising the risk of exposing users to more contaminants. Hemp is classified as a bio-accumulator, or a plant that naturally absorbs toxins from the soil.