Weed control, management, ecology, and minutia Broadleaf and blackseed plantain Plantago major L. and P. rugelii Many people are aware of cannabis oil and how it is prepared but most of the people are not aware of the benefits of black seed oil.
Weed With Black Seeds
This is a follow up article to a blog that my colleague, Guy Kyser wrote back in 2011 titled “Purple alert: Common Pokeweed”. Since that time, I probably get a dozen or so calls this time of year asking, “what is that huge weed growing in my yard with dark black berries and big green leaves.” Pokeweed!
I personally find this plant quite interesting. As a native to portions of the United States, it turns out this plant has a diverse history and in recent years it is being studied in cutting edge medical research and energy technology. Have I perked your interest? If so read on.
American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) is a robust, non-woody shrub that is weedy throughout much of California. Native to the eastern United States from Maine to Wisconsin, south to Texas, Mexico and Florida, pokeweed now occurs throughout much of North America. It is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental or garden vegetable, however more often it’s considered an undesirable weed. Pokeweed is found in riparian areas, oak woodlands, forest edges, fence rows, forest openings, pastures, under power lines, disturbed areas, vineyards, orchards, cultivated fields, parks, and ornamental landscapes.
Also called poke salad, poke sallet, pokeberry, inkberry, American nightshade, American spinach, scoke, and pigeonberry, the plant’s uses are as diverse as its names. Pokeweed has an extensive history for being used as a food, medicine, herb, dye for clothing, ink for writing, colorant for wines, and much more. Although used for food, extreme caution should be used, as the entire plant is poisonous causing a variety of symptoms, including death in rare cases.
Pokeweed is an erect herbaceous perennial shrub, 4 to 10 feet tall and 3 to 5 feet wide, with large leaves and showy purple-black berries. It has a smooth, stout, purplish stem that branches extensively and can reach up to 2 inches in diameter. The bright green, elliptic leaves are smooth, tapered, and alternate on the stem. Leaves can be large, reaching up to a foot in length and 4 to 7 inches wide and have a strong unpleasant scent when crushed. The purple berries hanging from the bright green leaves and red stems in late summer are the most distinguishing characteristic of pokeweed.
Reproduction is by seed and a single plant can produce 1,500 to 7,000 seeds annually. The seeds are large, lens-shaped, glossy, and black. Seeds can remain viable in the soil for up to 50 years. Pokeweed berries serve as an important food source for many species of birds, including Robins, Cedar-waxwings, Warblers, pigeons, and many others. New populations of pokeweed are spread primarily by birds. Seeds germinate in mid spring through early summer when soils are warm and moist. Germination is followed by rapid growth.
Pokeweed flowers in mid-summer. Flowers are borne in white-pinkish clusters that hang from the branches. Flowers consist of 5 white sepals, no petals, and are erect when in bloom and begin to droop as fruits develop. Flowers are self-fertile resulting in high fruit set. Immature berries are dull green, turning glossy purple-black at maturity in late Summer.
Pokeweed’s above-ground growth dies back after the first Fall frost, leaving large skeletons that breakdown over the winter. In the Spring, plants resprout from a large fleshy taproot.
Pokeweed is an occasional weed throughout much of the United States and is increasing in abundance in some areas. Once seen as a wildland weed, pokeweed is now becoming more common as an urban and landscape weed. All plant parts, especially the roots, contain numerous saponins and oxalates and can be fatally toxic to humans and livestock when ingested raw or with improper preparations. Severe digestive tract irritations are the primary symptom.
American pokeweed has a long history in the United States. A wide variety of chemicals have been isolated from pokeweed that have medicinal properties and Native Americans have used the plant in herbal remedies for centuries. During the Civil War, soldiers wrote letters using the ink from American pokeweed berries, and the pigment is still used occasionally to dye fabrics. Pokeweed has also been a favorite staple of country cuisine since colonial times, when tender young shoots were boiled and eaten as “poke salad”. Resembling canned spinach, “Poke salad” or “Poke sallet” was once available commercially and still inspires “Poke” festivals across portions of the east coast and the Deep South. American singer-songwriter and guitarist, Tony Joe White is best known for his 1969 hit song “Polk Salad Annie”, that was performed by Elvis Presley and Tom Jones. The shoots proved so popular to the first European explorers to the New World, it is documented that early Europeans took the sprouts back to Europe where they were equally enjoyed.
While Pokeweed has been used in folk medicine to treat numerous health problems and is still used in many herbal remedies today, medical research has not shown whether pokeweed is indeed effective in treating many of these ailments. Recently a protein in the plant “pokeweed antiviral protein” shows promise in being used in treating cancer, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and for conferring broad spectrum disease resistance in agricultural crops.
Researches have also been examining pokeweed for other uses. The dark red dye made from pokeweed is currently being tested to coat fiber based photovoltaic solar cells. The dye acts as an absorber, helping the cells tiny fibers trap more sunlight to convert into power. This fiber cell technology can produce as much as twice the power that current flat-cell technology can produce, and the dye made from pokeweed is much less expensive than a polymer dye.
What’s in a name. The scientific name Phytolacca americana comes from the Greek word phyton meaning plant and lacca meaning crimson lake in reference to the deep reddish-purple fruits. The second term, americana is in obvious reference to this plant being native to America. The common name poke is derived from puccoon, pocan or poughkone (from an Algonquin Indian name for this plant). Berries were once used to make ink, hence the sometimes-used common name of inkberry. An additional common name is poke sallet, local term meaning salad.
Pokeweed is spread by seed and new occurrences are often were birds frequent. Monitoring for new seedlings in areas below tree canopies, along fence rows, and below other perches, often provides the best strategy for surveillance and early detection.
Hand pulling is effective on small plants. Once plants are established and develop an extensive root system, hand removal is difficult. Digging out established plants with a shovel is effective, but often difficult in summer when soils are dry. Cutting well below the root crown prevents regrowth. Cultivation can also be effective on new seedlings in raised beds or other areas where tilling can be used.
Grazing is not considered an effective control option and animals should not be encouraged or allowed to consume large quantities of pokeweed. Seeds and foliage contain numerous saponins and oxalates and can be fatally toxic to livestock when ingested.
There are no biological control agents currently available for the management of pokeweed.
Foliar Sprays. The effectiveness of herbicides applied to the foliage depends on three factors—timing, achieving good coverage, and concentration.
Timing. Foliar application of herbicides to pokeweed is most effective after leaves are fully developed and when the plant is actively growing. This period normally is from April into July or August, when soil moisture remains adequate.
Don’t apply herbicides before plants begin their spring growth or in late fall when plants are stressed.
Although not typically a problem, dust can cover plants growing near roadsides. Herbicides, particularly glyphosate, can readily attach to dust or soil particles, thus reducing their effectiveness.
Coverage. You can apply herbicides as a foliar spray using one of two methods. The first is spray-to-wet, where all leaves and stems should glisten following an application. Coverage, however, should not be to the point of runoff.
The other method is a low-volume foliar application called drizzle. This technique uses a higher concentration of herbicide, but you spray it at a lower volume. This method is advantageous in dense shrubbery or where access is limited. To achieve proper coverage, spray the herbicide uniformly over the entire canopy in a “drizzle” pattern, using a spray gun.
Concentration. For spray-to-wet applications, products containing at least 41% glyphosate as the active ingredient can provide good to excellent control of pokeweed when applied at 3.75 ounces of product per gallon of water (3% of the total solution). Some products available for use in the home landscape with this concentration of active ingredient are Roundup Pro Concentrate®, FarmWorks Grass & Weed Killer 41% Glyphosate Concentrate, RM43 Total Vegetation Control, Compare-N-Save Grass & Weed Killer Concentrate, and Remuda® Full Strength. Glyphosate products that have a lower concentration of active ingredient, such as Roundup Weed & Grass Concentrate (18% active ingredient), will require about 6 ounces of product per gallon of water (4.7% of the total solution) for effective control.
Triclopyr is available in either amine or ester formulations, with triclopyr ester being more effective on pokeweed. Products containing a minimum of 61% active ingredient of the ester formulation can provide good to excellent control when applied at 1 to 1.25 ounces of product per gallon of water (0.75% to 1.5% of the total solution). One such product with this concentration is Brushtox Brush Killer with Triclopyr. Other ester formulations with less concentrate are also available including Crossbow. Mixing triclopyr ester with commercially available seed oils can offer better penetration. One available product is Southern Ag Methylated Seed Oil. Mix this at 1.25 ounces of product per gallon of herbicide solution (1% of the total solution). Triclopyr is also available in the amine formulation. Products available include Bayer Bio Advanced Brush Killer Plus, Ortho Brush-B-Gon Poison Ivy and Poison Oak & Brush Killer, and Monterey Brush & Vine Control.
The drizzle application method is good in situations of dense planting, or when it is difficult to cover an entire area due to topography. Glyphosate formulated into a product with 41% active ingredient can provide good to excellent control of pokeweed when applied at 13 ounces of product per gallon of water (10% of the total solution).
You also can apply triclopyr ester using a drizzle application. Products containing 61% active ingredient should be applied using 6.5 ounces of product (5% of the total solution) and 25 ounces of seed oil (20% of the total solution) per gallon of water.
Remember that although the drizzle technique uses a higher concentration of herbicide, you are applying it at a lower volume. One gallon of mixed herbicide solution should adequately treat one-half acre of densely populated pokeweed.
The best time to apply either herbicide is during active plant growth. Seedlings can be treated in early spring through summer. Mature plants should be treated in late summer during flowering as this will draw the herbicide into the root system. Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide that has no soil activity and triclopyr is a broadleaf selective herbicide with very limited soil activity. When air temperatures are higher than 80°F, it is better to use glyphosate or the amine formulation of triclopyr, since the ester form is subject to vaporization.
All photos from J.M. DiTomaso and E.A. Healy, Weeds of California and Other Western States, 2007.
No endorsement of named products is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products that are not mentioned.
Blackseed and broadleaf plantain
Family: Plantaginaceae (Plantain family)
Life cycle: Perennial, reproducing by seed
Native status: Broadleaf plantain is introduced to N. America, whereas blackseed plantain is native
Habitat: Turf, landscapes, waste areas
General description: Basal rosette of smooth, elliptic to oval leaves, up to 7 in long and 4 in wide. Leaves have prominent veins and usually inconspicuous hairs. As leaves mature the margins tend to get wavy. Flowers are inconspicuous, produced on a leafless stalk up to 10 in long. Flowers arranged in a spike that covers at least ¾ of the stalk. Has a fibrous root system.
Key ID traits: Rosette of oval leaves with prominent veins.
Similar species: Blackseed plantain can be difficult to differentiate from broadleaf plantain. Blackseed plantain usually has a red tinge at the base of leaf petioles and lacks hairs on leaf blades. Blackseed plantain has dull, black seeds whereas those of broadleaf are shiny and light to dark brown.
Miscellaneous: The plantains once were much more problematic as lawn weeds. They are much more susceptible to the growth regulator herbicides that are commonly used on lawns than many other perennial weeds. One reason for their greater sensitivity to herbicides than dandelion is the plantains have a fibrous root system rather than a taproot found on dandelions. The taproot stores more energy reserves than a fibrous root system, increasing the ability to come back from herbicide treatments.
Oval leaves with long, flat petioles characteristic of plantain. The red base of petiole suggests this is blackseed plantain.
Seedheads of broadleaf (left) and buckhorn (right) plantain
Successful weeds adapt to stresses in the environment. This plantain is able to survive a mowing height of 0.5″ or less in a creeping bentgrass golf fairway.
Health Benefits of Cannabis and Black Seed Oil
Cannabis oil and black seed oil have been used as an ancient remedy in many cultures, many people are aware of cannabis oil and how it is prepared but most of the people are not aware of the benefits of black seed oil.
Black seed oil Australia is also known as ‘Nigella Sativa’ and has been scientifically proven to be beneficial in multiple ways (especially in combination with cannabis oil). These black seeds are an essential part of ancient Egyptian culture and since then they have been using it to cure different remedies.
Everything you need to know about Cannabis oil and black seed oil
Cannabis oil can be simply defined as a liquid extract of the cannabis plant, and the purity of the oil depends on the chemical used in the process of extraction of oil.
Since the cannabis oil is extracted from the cannabis plant it contains the same ingredient as of plant but the balance of compound depends on the specific type of plant from which cannabis oil is extracted.
Two primary compounds found in cannabis plants are CBD and THC (this compound is responsible for making you high), so you should always check the balance of compound according to your requirements.
Cannabis has been used as a powerful medicine to cure many diseases, early records of medical cannabis date back to 2737 BCE, where Chinese Emperor Shen-Nung wrote a book about the healing benefits of cannabis. In 1550 BCE, ancient Egyptians used cannabis to treat many ailments. Indian god “Shiva” is also well known for his love for this wonderful plant.
History of Black seed oil
Whether it’s about extracting the oil or consuming it as a part of food, black seeds are been used since centuries, our ancestors had understood the value of this seed with incredible power to heal and cure many diseases.
The prophet Mohammed is said to have proclaimed that black seed could cure “anything but death.”
Black seed is mentioned in the Old Testament, too, and was found in the tomb of King Tut.
These two statements are enough to understand the wonderful benefits of black seeds.
How to enhance your benefits with Cannabis and Black seed oil
Whether it’s about relieving pain and inflammation or curing some type of cancer, the popularity of cannabis oil is soaring up, and more people are getting attracted to its extraordinary health benefits but you can add black seed oil to improve the effectiveness of the cannabis oil.
Both the oil has several common benefits which makes them an extraordinary remedy to fight many diseases.
No doubt you should definitely add these up to your daily diet routine to achieve many health benefits.
Benefits of using Cannabis oil and Black seed oil
Thymoquinone is one of the active ingredient present in the black seed is found to have many antioxidant properties that help the human body in different ways.
Although cannabis oil does not contain a large proportion of antioxidants, this oil is found to stimulate the antioxidation process within the body.
Consuming food rich in antioxidants are proven to have better heart health, reduces the risk of infection and fights many forms of cancer.
Consumption of black seed oil is found to have many anti-inflammatory benefits, Thymoquinone helps in reducing any kind of inflammation in the body.
CBD and THC present in the cannabis oil interact with the body’s cells and helps in reducing inflammation.
Black seed oil is found to have anti-depressing properties; it helps in stabilizing mood, reduces anxiety and improves the cognitive function of brain cells.
Cannabis oil has been proven to have the antidepressant properties, it helps in dilating the blood vessels which promotes better blood flow and the CBD has proven ability to calm down the anxiety and stress.
Enhance memory and neuroprotective properties
Thymoquinone and other components of Black seed oil are found to have neuroprotective effects, It also assists the brain through enhancing memory, attention, and cognition.
Cannabis oil is found to have a positive effect on the brain receptors, CBD found in the cannabis oil is useful in treating neurological diseases because it protects neurons.
Cannabis oil also helps in Alzheimer’s disease.
Anti-bacterial and Anti-fungal properties
Black seed oil is also said to contain natural antibiotic properties that is eligible to fight the wide range of different bacterial and fungal infection. You can either consume it or apply it through the skin to serve a different purpose.
Stops cancer growth
Black seed oil is helpful in fighting many types of cancers; it helps in liver cancer, bladder cancer, cervical cancer, bone cancer, breast cancer and stomach cancer. Thymoquinone is the active ingredient of black seed oil that helps in fighting cancer cells.
Cannabis oil is proven to slow down the growth of some cancer and reduce the tumor size in some cancers. Many people also take help of cannabis oil to relieve the pain and inflammation caused by cancer tumor.
Healthy fatty acids found in both the oil are proven to be very effective in keeping the heart healthy, it reduces the cholesterol level and dilates the blood vessels that relieves excess burden from the heart.
Black seed oil is very beneficial for the diabetics, as it helps in reducing the sudden spike in insulin levels.
As we have discussed the multiple benefits of the cannabis oil and the black seed oil, but it’s essential to use the purest form of oil to experience the benefits, we suggest you the use of only organic oil for best results.
Daily consumption of both of the oil will have multiple health benefits.
Jack loves to write about food products that can keep human beings fit throughout their life. Being a profound advocate of organic products and organic food it has been a passion for him to create awareness among people about the benefits of Organic food. Jack has been working and writing about health care and organic products to spread awareness among people.
- Health Benefits of Cannabis and Black Seed Oil – October 12, 2018
3 thoughts on “Health Benefits of Cannabis and Black Seed Oil”
Excellent info, Jack!
I truly believe that mixing cannabis oil with black seed oil (BSO) is going to be a boon for many reasons.
One, cannabis oil (CO) is expensive so if you infuse it with, maybe, a 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, or 1:5 ratio of CO:BSO I think this will create a powerful synergy while reducing costs by creating a higher yield formulation.
And the good thing is this…
If you want a mild or close-to-zero cannabis “THC high”, then obviously you’d use a higher CO:BSO ratio like maybe 1:4, 1:5 or higher until you find that perfect balance FOR YOU.
I’ve started experimenting on myself. I’ll post my feedback in a month or 2. Right now, I’m in “Mad Scientist” mode.
Alicia, I can emphatically claim that mixing cannabis oil (THC) with black seed oil together is an EXCELLENT combo. As I mentioned above, by playing around with different ratios, every individual can find a good combo that works for them. But in general, I find a 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 CO:BSO ratio is a fantastic way to get a good steady mental buzz while still benefiting from the win:win SYNERGY these 2 oils bring to the table.
I have also been experimenting with an unrefined organic cannabis sativa hemp oil (low or no THC) I get from a herbalist with a DIY cannabis THC oil from another herbalist in a 1:1 ratio. Fantastic stuff, great vibe!
No getting overwhelmed with the THC — especially on hot days. You just feel “steady” and can go about your day accomplishing all tasks at hand. I enjoy putting about a half teaspoon under my tongue to get the show on the road before I head out the door.