Posted on

recent studies have

Recent studies have shown that we’ve forgotten how to read simple care labels.

Recent studies have shown that children who choose their own reading material become better readers.

Guest

Retail Lead Linguist @ Apple Inc.

Recent studies have shown that fast food also has pernicious effects on how we think.

Recent studies have shown that Postelsia grows in greater numbers when such competition exists.

PIP: The present level of understanding of the known risks of oral contraceptive (OC) use are summarized. The findings of many investigations in the late 1960s and early 1970s may no longer be totally appropriate because OCs available then had higher dosages than today. Also, early studies enrolled predominantly women in their 20s, who are now almost all more than 35 years old. Thus, the risks observed in these studies may not be applicable to younger women using OCs today. Another consideration has been underscored by the results of the Walnut Creek Study. Behavioral characteristics such as smoking, drinking, and sexual activity are factors which can strongly confound risks of OC use and must be considered when assessing current and future investigations. Many studies have clearly shown that the most serious life threatening danger associated with OC use is that of cardiovascular complications arising from the interaction of OC use and smoking. The increased risks attributable to smoking while using OCs account for a substantial number of the deaths recorded. The Walnut Creek Study showed a somewhat different outcome. Its data suggest no significant risk of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic heart disease, cerebral thrombosis, or ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with OC use, but there were nonsignificant increases noted in some cardiovascular diseases which appeared to be explained by a synergism between current use and heavy smoking. Age also has a strong influence on risk for cardiovascular disease. The results of earlier studies seem to indicate that OC use is associated with a risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The Walnut Creek Study also noted an increased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with OC use and found that risk increased with use. Several studies have shown that the incidence of venous thrombosis seems dependent on the dosage of the OC used. An overwhelming majority of studies on the carcinogenicity of OCs have found no increased incidence of cancer of the ovaries, uterus, or breast among users. In regard to both ovaries and endometrium, there is some evidence that OCs may be protective. Several studies have concluded that OC users have a slightly increased risk of developing malignant melanoma. The results of the Oxford/Family Planning Study show that although previous use of OC by nulliparous women may delay future childbearing by several months, it does not impair longterm potential for pregnancy. No increase in risk of clinically apparent diabetes mellitus has been reported in users. In addition to their possible protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, OCs may reduce the risk of at least 5 other diseases: benign breast disease; deficiency anemia; arthritis, pelvic inflammatory disease; and ovarian cysts.

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been recently covered in the media, and you may have even seen it as an add-in booster to your post-workout smoothie or morning coffee. What exactly is CBD? Why is it suddenly so popular?

Side effects of CBD include nausea, fatigue and irritability. CBD can increase the level in your blood of the blood thinner coumadin, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in your blood by the exact same mechanism that grapefruit juice does. A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication. Currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So, you cannot know for sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other (unknown) elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.

How is cannabidiol different from marijuana?

Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may be prove to be an option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD is currently is mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it’s difficult to know exactly what you are getting. If you decide to try CBD, talk with your doctor — if for no other reason than to make sure it won’t affect other medications you are taking.

Image: yavdat/Getty Images

CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a "high." According to a report from the World Health Organization, "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD."