CO2 typically behaves like a gas at standard pressure and temperature. And it is easily changed to a solid while in this state. The solid version of the gas is known as dry ice. Using the aforementioned equipment in a lab, you can turn CO2 gas into a liquid by ensuring the temperature drops below -69 degrees Fahrenheit while increasing the pressure to over 75 pounds per square inch (psi). At this stage, you have your starting point for CO2 cannabis extraction. Next, you will follow one of the three steps described below.
Most experts recommend heating at 248 degrees Fahrenheit for 60 minutes or 284 degrees Fahrenheit for 30 minutes. Once this step is completed, plant material is added to the olive oil and heated to 212 degrees Fahrenheit for up to 2 hours (and at least 1 hour). This process should result in the extraction of cannabinoids.
Turn the bucket upside down on the Plexiglas and shake as much resin through the mesh bag as possible. Scrap the hash off the Plexiglas with your scraper and place it into one of the jars. Repeat with the 160 and 220-micron mesh bags, and you’ll be rewarded with three different strains of extract.
Pros and Cons of the Dry Ice Extraction Method
The way CBD affects our body is quite different from THC in the sense that it is not involved in direct stimulation of the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The major impact of CBD is on other receptors such as serotonin, adenosine, and vanilloid.
Pros and Cons of the Solvent Extraction Method
In simple terms, CO2 cannabis extraction uses pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2) to pull CBD (and other phytochemicals) from the plant. CO2 acts like a solvent at certain temperatures but possesses none of the dangers. While it is safe and effective, it also involves expensive equipment which freezes the CO2 gas and compresses it into a supercritical cold liquid state.
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Dry mouth and red eyes are possible, as is paranoia and headaches, though those are very limited. Lavender hits THC levels as high as 27%, making it one of the more potent and effective strains on the market. Its short vegetative cycle and easy cultivating makes it a good choice for patients who home grow.
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While this is the easiest and least risky way to extract CBD oil, it is certainly not the most efficient. As with most DIY projects, there’s always room for user error. But even if you do everything right, you are going to sacrifice a large part of the organic compounds of the plant and you will produce less potent oil than a lab would. For these reasons, extracting CBD at home is an interesting experiment, but if you want to reap all the benefits of CBD it is advisable to get it from a reputable source instead.
While it requires qualified personnel and there are higher costs associated with the equipment needed for supercritical CO2 extraction, it is by far the most efficient and quickest method to extract CBD. It is also environmentally friendly due to the limited amount of emissions, and safer than extractions that use certain solvents as CO2 is “generally regarded as safe” by the FDA.
CBDfx offers some of the finest organic full spectrum CBD oil. They’re blended with MCT oil derived from coconuts and are now available in a few exciting flavor varieties. They start at 500 mg and go up to 1,500 mg CBD. CBDfx employs a special supercritical CO2 extraction process using only the finest organic hemp.
Activation and purification
Possibly the simplest way to extract CBD oil, as it only requires some CBD-rich bud, olive oil, and some basic kitchen equipment to ensure a steady supply of heat. If you’ve ever made cannabutter, then technically you have already utilized this method before. The only difference in this case, is that you are using hemp and olive oil—but olive oil can easily be swapped out for the oil or butter of your choice. This includes regular butter, coconut oil, hempseed oil, etc.
Steam distillation is a centuries-old process that’s commonly used to distill alcohol as well as extract essential oils from organics. The process is much less complicated than CO2 CBD extraction. First, plant matter is introduced in a distillation tank. With the use of water and heat, the produced steam carries oils to the top of the tank, and it is then passed through a condenser, resulting in a mix of water and oil. The mix then goes through further distillation to separate water and oil, and the result is full-spectrum CBD oil.
While not as essential as carboxylation, winterization is a very common process that ensures that the final product of the extraction is as pure as possible. Simply put, the process of winterization employs solvents (usually ethanol) and low temperatures to ensure that lipids and other impurities are removed from an oil extract. This takes place as one of the final steps before full spectrum oil is obtained.
Decarboxylation may take place before or after the extraction, and the exact methodology followed is highly dependent on this choice. But it is an essential part of the CBD oil production process, as non-activated compounds have little to no effect on the user.