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phytocannabinoids side effects

Early research suggests that 160 mg of cannabidiol before bed significantly improves sleep duration compared to a placebo in patients with insomnia. Smaller doses did not have this effect. Also, patients did not feel drowsy the next morning morning.

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There are also studies of oral, topical, and inhaled CBD for use in many other conditions including: dystonia (movement disorder), Fragile X syndrome (rare genetic disorder), graft-versus-host disease (bone marrow transplant rejection), multiple sclerosis (MS), opioid withdrawal, schizophrenia, and smoking cessation. CBD is also used to alleviate Parkinson’s symptoms, but there are some studies that advise against it.

Medical Research

CAUTION: Taking CBD with other herbs that cause drowsiness or sleepiness may increase this effect.

CBD oil may be used both ways.

There are two types of cannabis sativa: hemp and marijuana. The hemp plant is the source of CBD used in most products.

CBD is the primary cannabinoid in hemp. It has various healing properties. For example, it seems to lessen inflammation, the body’s response to illness or injury. In this way, it may be helpful in treating many different diseases.

Iuvone, T., Esposito, G., Esposito, R., Santamaria, R., Di Rosa, M., and Izzo, A. A. Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. J Neurochem. 2004;89(1):134-141. View abstract.

Cunha, J. M., Carlini, E. A., Pereira, A. E., Ramos, O. L., Pimentel, C., Gagliardi, R., Sanvito, W. L., Lander, N., and Mechoulam, R. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology 1980;21(3):175-185. View abstract.

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Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 2011;51(5):1054-61. View abstract.

Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, et al. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol 2011;25(1):121-30. View abstract.

Leweke FM, Kranaster L, Pahlisch F, et al. The efficacy of cannabidiol in the treatment of schizophrenia – a translational approach. Schizophr Bull 2011;37(Suppl 1):313.

Recently, phytocannabinoids are found to occur in several plant species different from Cannabis, including Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, Acmella oleracea, Helichrysum umbraculigerum, and Radula marginata. According to the definition, these molecules are phytocannabinoids as showing binding affinity at cannabinoid receptors, but they show chemical structures far different from THCs ( Fig. 10 ).

Brian F. Thomas , Mahmoud A. ElSohly , in The Analytical Chemistry of Cannabis , 2016

Cannabidiol in Refractory Epilepsy

The current variation in phytocannabinoid content across and within chemotypes has important implications in medicinal cannabis and cannabis-based formulations and dosing. This has become increasingly apparent and can be recognized by the plethora of varieties of cannabis being cultivated, manufactured, and marketed as dosing formulations in the medicinal and recreational market. Similarly, the nonphytocannabinoid composition of cannabis is receiving increasing pharmacological attention, particularly terpenoids and flavonoids. 13

Figure 10 . Phytocannabinoids beside Cannabis. Molecules interacting with CB receptors.

Cannabis sativa's biological effects are due to the phytocannabinoid family of compounds. There are almost 200 cannabinoids known now, not only from Cannabis but also in several other plant species. The majority of interest resides in the two dominant phytocannabinoids present in different Cannabis varieties: delta-9-trans-tetrahydrocannabidiol (d9-trans-THC) responsible for the psychoactivity and cannabidiol (CBD) which has a number of medical uses. Both of these are decarboxylated neutral forms of their acid parent compounds which are the naturally-occurring forms of the phytocannabinoids. However, a number of studies show that the whole plant extracts often exert more biological effects than the isolated compounds. Thus, analytical efforts to better understand the complexity of the phytocannabinoids are warranted. Gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) has been used for characterization of the phytocannabinoids since its inception in the 1960s. It is still one of the most-used analytical techniques for determination of phytocannabinoids. GC/EI-MS analyses of underivatized extracts of a THC-type and a CBD-type cannabis are presented in detail, including mass spectra and chromatograms. The advantages and disadvantages of GC/EI-MS for characterization of phytocannabinoids are discussed. GC/EI-MS is shown to be a powerful analytical method for characterizing the complexity of the phytocannabinoids.