Learn how to grow the best indoor plants from seed to harvest with this complete, in-depth guide. Read now. Everything you need to know how to quickly and successfully germinate cannabis seeds. Compare different methods of marijuana seeds germination and choose the best one Germinate Marijuana Seeds We kind of view this as unnecessary, but have added it in because many people swear by it. The theory is that by weakening the tough hull, it makes it easier for the
Complete Beginner’s Guide to Growing the Best Plants from Seed to Harvest
Want to grow plants at home? Wondering how to get started or what equipment you might need? Not sure you’ve got enough space or whether it’s going to be cost-effective? Whatever your question, in this step by step grower’s guide we’ve got you covered. Think of this as Cannabis Growing 101. You’re about to start learning, step by step, how to grow your first crop of lush, green marijuana.
The First Step: Choosing The Right Seed
True, there is another way to get started, by taking a cutting from an existing plant and cloning it… However, for beginners, we’d recommend growing from seed. Germination rate is 85% or above, whereas the success rate for growing cloned plants is around 50%. And you need to have access to a plant to take the cutting from, which isn’t going to be the case for most beginners.
How to Choose Cannabis Seed
The seed is like a sleeping embryo, the result of sexual propagation between male and female flowers. Only healthy parent plants will produce healthy top quality seeds. All the features of the plant, be it the height, color, aroma or quality, all depend on the seed. If you want good quality marijuana, you need good quality seeds. Check this well-known site that offers a wide variety. But how do you select a seed worth growing? Avoid pale seeds, green seeds, and soft or damaged seeds. These are not mature or ready for germination. Cannabis seeds should have a hard outer shell. So what you’re looking for is hard, dark brown teardrop-shaped seeds, with darker tiger stripes (these are usually Indica seeds) or brown, black or tan mottling (usually Sativa). There are numerous strains of seed available. But whatever the strain, you’ll also need to choose between regular seeds that could produce male or female plants and feminized seeds that should produce only the bud-producing female plants you’re aiming to harvest. However, with feminized seeds, there’s still about a 5% chance of hermaphrodite plants, which produce both male and female flowers and self-pollinate. (You can also check out this beginner’s guide to choosing your first seeds.)
Germination of Cannabis Seeds
After selecting the right seed, the next step is germination. https://youtu.be/x4Eg7qw0x2U Germination is a process in which the outer shell of a healthy and mature seed, kept in the correct environmental conditions (moisture, air and warmth), breaks down and a white colored root begins to sprout from it, dropping downward. Here’s what you need to learn: only 2 or 3 out of 10 non-feminized seeds will become healthy female marijuana plants, others may spoil or grow as male plants. So take that into account when deciding how many seeds to germinate. The average time, a healthy seed takes to germinate is about 2 to 7 days, but the period may vary depending on quality of seed, temperature, moisture, etc. After the germination process, you’ll be looking to remove all the male or less developed sprouts and focus on raising the healthy female marijuana plants. (More on that later.) If you don’t have as many female plants as you’d like, you may want to begin another germination process as soon as possible. Our advice is also to germinate in the hot months for more effective results. A growing/grower mat can help germination too, but is an extra expense. Once the seed has germinated, the white colored, root-shaped sprout should grow longer and longer. When the size reaches about a quarter inch it’s the perfect time to transfer it to another medium such as rockwool tray or any other pot where it has space to become a baby plant. From there, it will eventually be transferred into the garden or a hydroponic system.
How to Germinate a Cannabis Seed
There are many techniques to start germination. But one good tip for the beginner is to practice them on other common seeds first, rather than waste expensive marijuana seeds. The different techniques for germinating seed are as follows:
This is the most reliable technique of germinating marijuana or any other seed. In this method you need a normal coffee cup filled with warm water. Put the seeds into the warm water. If some seeds float to the top, remove them. The next step is to cover the cup with a lid so that light is unable to reach inside. Expect the seeds to germinate in the following 48 hours or so. Some seeds will even begin to sprout within 24 hours.
Germination in Soil
Some farmers prefer to germinate in the soil. This method is also easy and it really works. You need to take a pot filled with soil, pour water in it and let it drain from the hole at the bottom of the pot. Dig a little soil from its surface and push a pencil or any other pointed tool down about a quarter inch deep. Now put the seed in and then fill up the space with the soil you dug from the surface. Spray water and keep it moist until you find a small sprout coming up from the soil. Remember that it will require a normal room temperature to germinate in soil, which is around 78 degrees Fahrenheit. Usually, with this method seeds take 5 to 7 days to germinate.
Propagation kits are inexpensive and give good results. They will come with their own instructions, but generally you have to pour the seeds into tiny pots or compartments, add the germination hormone or nutrient mix that comes with the kit, and the process gets started. You can even create your own propagation machine, although purchasing it from market doesn’t cost you much.
Paper Towel Method
Two dishes, two paper towels and some water is needed for this method of germination. You have to boil some water, rinse both the dishes with it so that there are no germs left. Now soak the paper towels in the hot water and squeeze them so that they become damp and warm. Place one paper towel on a dish, put some seeds on it, cover them with another paper towel and then use the second dish as a lid. This is necessary to prevent light entering this environment. Seeds will take 2 to 5 days to germinate through this method. Remember that you don’t want to leave the germinated seeds on towel for too long. Transfer them from the paper towel as soon as the sprouts show their tips.
Germinating in Peat Briquettes
Soak a peat briquette in water and let it swell. Now push a seed into the hole. Keep it in a hot temperature, like in 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Keep it moist and wait for the sprouts to come out. This is the safest and most reliable method of germinating a marijuana seed. Note that you can select any of the above mentioned methods of germinating seed. Go with whichever suits you the best.
Once you see that the sprout is a quarter inch long then it’s time to replant it in a pot, where it will grow up to become a small marijuana plant. A marijuana seedling is basically a pair of two leaves that is generally called a ‘seedling leaf’ or ‘cotyledon’. The function of the cotyledon is initially to store the food and make the up-coming plant healthy. When the real leaves arrive, the cotyledon gets paler, yellow and then drops down. Real leaves at this stage of marijuana plant growth have 3 lamina. At this early stage, a baby plant needs intense care. Don’t water the plant too much—big mistake. Also pay attention to the amount of light it’s getting. If you’re a newbie grower, it’s worth noting here that the growth of plant appears slow at this stage. But in fact what’s happening is that the root system is developing. So do not over-fertilize or over-water the plant to increase its growth rate. It can kill your plant. Remember also that the marijuana seedling requires approximately 16 hours of light on a daily basis. Set your light to 15/30/30 (15% red, 30% blue, 30% white).
Whether you have your seedling process in a rockwool tray or in a pot, now is the time to transplant those seedlings into the garden or hydroponic system, where they will start to really grow and produce the material for some top quality weed. When transplanting the seedling, you should dig a hole in the soil and place the seedling carefully inside. You can drop the seedling in along with the rockwool tube, don’t worry. It won’t affect the growth of the plant in any manner, and removing it could damage the roots.
What You’ll Need to Monitor During Growing
Now that your plants are growing and becoming a strong crop, you need to be careful with a few things. First and foremost, keep an eye on nutrient deficiency or excess. Both can have similar symptoms. But in general, look out for: lightening then yellowing in older mature leaves; spots of different kinds; various sorts of discoloration. The 3rd to 5th week can be the best time to determine whether your plant is growing healthily or not. If the color of the plant is perfect green, branches are strong and dense and everything looks fine during this period then you should be satisfied that it is growing the right way. Sometimes it appears that the stems of the plant in its early days are purple in color. Don’t worry. it’s a normal thing. It happens just because of genetics and nothing else.
Low nitrogen level is good for female plants, while high nitrogen levels produce and nourish male plants efficiently. Too low and you’ll see lightening and yellowing of the leaves. Moreover, keep the potassium level low for encouraging the growth of female plants and vice versa for male plants. Too low and you’ll see a brown burnt-look to the tips and edge of the leaves, turning yellow further into the leaf. A general excess of nutrients—usually known as “nutrient burn”—is diagnosable by yellow or brown tips to the leaves. If nutrient levels aren’t reduced, you’ll see the discoloration travel further into the leaf and the tips will start to curl and become brittle. However, don’t worry too much when you see initial signs in young plants, as the more they grow the more nutrients they need. The soil might be too rich for them now, but when they’re a bit larger it will likely be ideal. Try to keep control over humidity and temperature if you are growing plants indoors. High humidity helps in increasing the growth rate of female plants, while low humidity is good for the growth of male. Likewise with the temperature: low temperature is helpful for female plants’ growth, while high temperature is good for male plants.
Temperature and humidity levels for female plants at different growing stages:
- Seedlings: 20-25ºC with lights on, 4-5º lower with lights off; 60-70% humidity.
- Vegetative: 22-28ºC; 40-70%.
- Flowering: 20-26ºC; below 55%.
- Late flowering (1-2 weeks before harvesting): 18-24ºC, 5-10º lower with lights off; 30-40%.
Recommended light settings for indoor cannabis at each growing stage
- Seedlings: 15/30/30 (15% red, 30% blue, 30% white). Once seedling has leaves and has been above ground a week, 30/60/60.
- Vegetative: 30/60/60, 45/80/80 or 60/100/100 (depending on plant type, check recommendations when buying the seeds).
- Flowering: 100/100/100.
- Late flowering: 100/70/100.
N.B. These are the settings recommended by Kind LED. Their LED Grow Lights (some of the best on the market) allow setting red, blue and white levels individually.
How to Grow Seedlings into Mature Marijuana Plants
Now you are going to learn the most important things you need to know to become a perfectionist marijuana grower. It’s up to you which method and medium you select to grow your indoor marijuana. The topics we’re going to cover in this chapter include:
- Growing with Soil Using Germination Process
- Growing by Cloning Process
- Growing Hydroponically
We recommend first-time growers go with the most reliable means of cultivation, which is soil. The reason is simply that it is a cost-effective method and has fewer risks, compared to other methods. However, we’ll give you the step by step guide for all three of these cannabis growing methods, so that you have a proper idea of what method suits you the most and why.
Growing with Soil Using Germination Process
We’ve already covered why growing marijuana with soil is the best method for beginners. It is cost effective, fruitful and reliable. If you’re not interested in turning this growing thing into a large business, then you may choose to grow in the containers. For the beginners, growing in containers is easy to handle and has less chance of failure.
Growing in Containers
Growing in containers, you have a chance to look after each and every plant individually. This allows you to identify weak or poor quality marijuana plants early. A container can be of any sort including a pot, small bucket, wooden box or other similar thing. All you need to do is to make some holes (about 1 centimeter diameter) to drain out excess water and get air to the roots. Make sure that the color of the container is dark, ideally black, as it is helpful in ensuring light doesn’t penetrate to the roots. You can start off with small containers as they are much easier to handle. But you must be aware that as the roots of your plants grow longer you’ll eventually need to shift the plants (very carefully, so as not to damage the roots) from small containers to the larger ones—usually soon after you realize that rapid growth is beginning.
Make Your Own Container
You can prepare your own container using old and rejected pots, broad sized bottles and bowls. You should clean them first and then make appropriate sized holes beneath the pots. The holes must be big enough to drain all the excess water out. And ideally the container material shouldn’t let in the light.
Growing in the Ground
If you are growing marijuana at home, then you may not be able to find a suitable space to grow marijuana in the ground, outside, where there is abundant sunlight. But if the option’s available to you, it’s worth doing. You have to be careful about the spacing of the plants. Try to leave an appropriate but uniform space between each plant (3-4 feet, or more if you have the space) so that the productivity is maximized.
Choosing Soil Type
Remember that if you are growing cannabis in soil then you have to be choosy in selecting the type of soil. Make sure that the soil you are using for marijuana cultivation is drainable but does not completely drain all the water. It should be capable of retaining some water. The three factors to consider in selection of appropriate soil for marijuana include nutrients, PH level and texture. Organic soil has the capability to produce the best quality cannabis crop. Texture of soil also has a major role in the growing process of cannabis so make sure that it is fluffy, light and can drain excess water but retain what’s needed.
Transplanting Cannabis Plants
Transplanting means to convert the plants from small containers to bigger ones or shifting them from containers to the ground of your cultivating area. The method of transplanting is simple, but not easy. You need to take the plant out of the container carefully, along with the roots and all the soil around them. Dig the next home for this plant from its center and then place it in the hole. Transplantation can cause a little damage to the root system and some stress to the plants so they need some time to settle down. We would advise transplanting at night so that plant has an appropriate time to rest before light starts it growing and photosynthesizing again.
Main Nutrients Needed For Growing Cannabis
Plants need vitamins and minerals just like people. You can mix and match your own nutrients using our directions on the required ingredients, but why not choose an all-in-one starter pack like the one below? If you decide to make your own nutrient concoction, below are the main nutrients which play an important role in the growth of marijuana:
Nitrogen is the most essential element that helps in leaf and stem growth. Too little nitrogen leads the plant’s leaves to turn yellow. So use as much nitrogen as you can, especially during vegetation to make sure that the growth of the plant occurs in the finest way.
Phosphorus plays a key role in the process of photosynthesis and respiration. It is advised to use more phosphorus than nitrogen during the flowering.
Potassium is necessary for the building and transferring of sugars for marijuana plants. It is also an important element for absorption of water and nutrients, aiding rapid growth of the plant.
Watering of Marijuana Plants
Watering depends on the size of the plant’s container and the light’s intensity. HID lights due to the high level of heat given off affect the water level of plant. In general, you need to water your crop every other day. Roots want air as well as water, so a little bit of dryness is healthy for the plant—but not too much, otherwise the plant will suffer from dehydration. Water until about 20% of the water drains through the runoff hole at the bottom of the container. Then empty the runoff tray, rather than let the container sit in that water and reabsorb it.
Checking pH Levels
The pH level of marijuana plants needs to be monitored very carefully. 6.7 to 6.2 level is the best condition for the survival of your marijuana plant. Not paying attention to pH levels can lead to the devastation of the whole crop. Over feeding of fertilizers and organic compounds may cause disturbance in the pH level of a plant, so make sure to do your research before using any fertilizer. As far as fertilizers go, common manure fertilizer will do just fine for marijuana. You don’t really need to find some super extraordinary ultra-nutrient. So you are now almost done with the main guidelines about marijuana cultivation in soil. The only thing that remains is the level of lighting, which we will guide you through in detail later on, after we’ve talked about cloning…
Cloning Method for Growing Marijuana
Cloning is one of the smartest methods to grow marijuana and is widely used by farmers and indoor marijuana growers.
How Do You Clone?
Choose some donor plants, then take cuttings from them and grow the cuttings in a separate medium. You’re essentially creating mini-copies of the original plants. The big advantage is that each clone will turn out to be a female plant—i.e. the kind you’ll harvest hopefully giant buds from.
There are, however, some drawbacks as well to cloning, but if you already have some healthy and productive marijuana plants it’s a great way to produce more. You can easily select some donor plants from existing plants in your crop and then make some clones out of them. But let’s have a closer look at the benefits and drawbacks:
Benefits of Cloning
- It is a time saving process, because all you need to do is to select some plants, make the clones and place them in their growing mediums. In the seed method, it takes days in germination, growth of seedlings, and so on.
- It saves money as well, because you don’t need to buy any seeds.
- Your plants are guaranteed to be female.
- They grow much faster than seedlings, since they’re essentially already as mature as the plant the cutting was taken from.
- Rooted clones of marijuana take less time in flowering.
- Growing lots of marijuana at once becomes a much easier process, as clones take so much less time to grow.
- The characteristics of your final product will be the same or even better in taste, aroma and effects every time.
Drawbacks of Cloning
- Due to the genetic uniformity, there is more chance of plants succumbing to pests and diseases.
- Less variety. If you go with the seed process, you can grow something different every time—try different tastes, aromas and effects.
- Cloning can be workable and reliable if you are taking cuttings from your existing marijuana plants that you know well. Finding them from other sources and getting perfect results is far from guaranteed!
- If you choose a poor plant to clone from, you’re stuck with that plant’s flaws.
- They can easily die of shock if a little mishandling happens. QUICK TIP: Always take more clones than you need to allow for the inevitable.
- Clones are very sensitive, so are not that easy to handle at all.
- All the clones are always going to be females. Which makes breeding a problem in the future.
Step by Step Guide to Cloning Cannabis Plants
Below is the easy and step by step guide to making your clones:
- The first and most important thing you need to do is to choose the mother plant. Remember that all the future product depends on it, so choose a healthy, productive and disease free mother plant.
- You should cut 50% more clones than the number of plants you need. Not all the clones are going to become healthy plants. Many of them may die from shock.
- You can cut the clones at any time during the plant’s cycle but supposedly the best time is before the plant starts flowering.
- Your hands must be washed with a good antibacterial soap; all your tools and growing area/medium must be clean too.
- For immediate planting, a pH balanced medium should be prepared.
- Keep all the clones nearby you within immediate reach at the time of their planting; exposed clones will wilt quickly.
How to take a cutting
- Select the appropriate clones: actively growing plant tops, having two to three nodes/branches only with fan leaves (mature plants have alternating leaves, rather than facing ones). See photo below.
- Cut a lower node or two at the stem.
- Treat your clone in a good quality rooting solution, and make sure at least the lowest node is thinly covered.
- Now fix this clone in a rockwool cube.
- Do not forget to prep the rockwools by soaking them overnight in a pH balanced solution.
- Clip large leaves in half to ensure that the clone focuses on creating roots.
Growing clones into mature plants
- The next step is dome and lighting. Spray inside the humidity dome or propagator with No Damp solution (or equivalent). Do not spray the clone direct as it may result in powdery mildew.
- Place the covered clone tray with humidity dome at a spot where an appropriate amount of white fluorescent light is available. This light can be natural sunlight or T9 grow light, or even an HID light if you’re careful.
- The humidity dome should be removed from the clone tray on the 5th day. But remember also to lift the lid daily for air exchange.
- Water every other day. Then once a day when the dome has been removed.
- Now you have to check if the plant is rooted yet or not. For checking, you can tug the plant lightly toward upward side. If the plant is rooted, it will not come out of the cube. If it is not, it will come out of the cube easily. Please note that you are not supposed to do this until the 5th day. Rooting can take 5-10 days.
- If you see some leaves turning to yellow at this early stage, it is actually a good sign so don’t worry. It happens because during the process of rooting, the plant consumes all the nutrients from its fan leaves. Add a little weak nutrient at this stage.
- Till the time plant is in the process of rooting, you have to spray it with water. Once you have seen signs of plants being rooted, water them properly.
- You should also drain the rooting solution out from the cube as it is of no use now.
- Now, at this critical stage, you are supposed to check whether the plant is wilting. You can check it by opening the grow tent a little bit. If you find no wilting for 4 to 6 hours it means you are ready to move ahead.
- Now you can put these clones under HID or LED lights or you can plant them outdoors in soil.
- Make sure that they get 15 to 18 hours of lighting. They need this much light to get to the vegetation phase.
How To Avoid Wilting When Growing Clones
Don’t worry if you find your clones wilting, just check if they are placed properly in their respective mediums. Also keep a close eye on your lighting. It should not be too bright and should be in line with the light levels needed by the plant. New clones need relatively gentle light: 25/45/45 (red/blue/white percentage settings for a Kind LED grow light). If you follow the above criteria, you should get successful results. And over time and with experience you’ll be able to refine the process and learn even more.
Hydroponics for growing marijuana results in the greatest yields. But it has both advantages and disadvantage, so let’s discuss them first before going into the core details of how you can grow your own Cannabis Sativa using hydroponics.
- There is no need for soil in this method so it is a clean process. All the process is done making no mess at all.
- Due to the controlled system, pollution in the environment is eliminated.
- It produces large amounts of high quality weed.
- Due to the controlled and monitored system of hydroponics, there should be no dry spots or root drowning.
- It reduces water costs because water remains in the system.
- Nutrients are controlled under the system, so it save you money here as well.
- It is easier to prevent the hydroponic system from getting infected or attacked by insects.
- The time of growth is rapid and quantity of yield is greater.
- With the right hydroponic system you can even grow your own weed in your bedroom.
- This is an expensive mean of growing marijuana.
- You need to regularly monitor on the system.
- It totally depends on electricity.
- A little mistake can destroy the whole thing that took you ages to prepare.
Step By Step Guide to Growing Marijuana Hydroponically
Now let’s show you how to grow marijuana in your hydroponics system. Make sure to follow each step correctly and in the right order.
- First of all collect all the basic necessary items that you need. The items may include seeds or clones (whatever you prefer); some white paint; hydroponic nutrients; containers or pots; growing medium for the pots (such as Coco Coir); fluorescent, HID or LED lighting system; timer; pH detector.
- Now you’ll need to prepare your walls in order to maximize your weed production. Growing indoors, means it’s up to you to provide your crop with an appropriate amount of light. Painting the walls of your grow room with semi-gloss white paint helps reflect the light source back onto the plants.
- You can also use mylar to line your walls, or grow within a mylar-lined grow tent or grow box, as mylar is highly reflective. The drawback is that mylar reflects both light and heat extremely efficiently, so you need to be careful not to burn your plants.
- Next you have to set up the lights. Hang them to give your plants the maximum amount of coverage. Your light should come with instructions giving suggested heights for each stage of growth to ensure each plant in your grow space gets enough light. Also check any instructions that came with your plant or seeds, as some strais need more light than others.
- If you’re using HID (High Intensity Discharge) grow lights, the general rule of thumb is 40w per square foot, going up to 60-70w to maximize yields.
- If you’re using LED grow lights, to ensure good coverage, check your light’s PAR value. PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) is the section of the light spectrum that the plant can actually absorb and use to photosynthesise. This is the range from 400nm to 700nm. A full cycle LED light will produce the PAR values you need at every stage of your grow—and won’t waste your electricity bill producing light your plants can’t use.
- PPFD, Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density, is the main measure of how much of that usable light is falling on the plant per square meter per second. It’s basically the intensity of the light. This is often what people mean when talking about PAR rating or values. For good light coverage, the higher the better.
- When buying an LED grow lights, as well as looking out for high PAR values, you also need to check out the spectrum it produces. This is basically the quality of that light. The ideal is a full spectrum grow light.
- The simplest rule of thumb for making sure your plants are adequately covered by an LED grow light is to assume a minimum of 32w per square foot. However, note that this refers to how many watts the light draws at the wall socket, not its stated output.
[N.B. We could go a lot more in-depth on ensuring even light distribution, PAR and the various measures and ratings involved with grow lights. It’s a large and sometimes controversial topic in the growing community. However, for this beginner’s guide we decided to stick with the simplest rules of thumb, to get you growing more quickly. And as we mentioned above, the instructions that came with your light and seeds/plant should see you right. However, if you want to learn more, check out this article or our guide to choosing a grow light.]
Temperature, humidity, ventilation, nutrients
- Careful not to overheat plants with the lighting. The maximum temperature a marijuana plant can bear is about 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Check this guide for how to measure and control temperature and humidity in your grow setup.
- Every plant needs proper ventilation. This is one of the most important requirements for an ideal growing environment. So make sure that your growing area is properly ventilated.
- If you are not using the cloning method, then you’ll obviously need seeds. Seeds need to germinate before planting. (We’ve covered how to pick seeds and germinate them above.)
- The next destination for a germinated seed is a rockwool block. This is where the initial growth of the plant will take place.
- Now you can start feeding your plant with water and other nutrients in your hydroponic system. The ideal water pH level at this stage is 5.0 to 6.0. Do not overfeed the plant with some extraordinary amount of nutrients—too many nutes can spoil a plant very quickly. Start off with an average amount of nutrients and increase gradually.
- At this stage, a plant needs intense care and careful monitoring to ensure maximum yield in the future. Keep an eye on the pH level of the tap or filtered water you are growing with. Also keep a careful eye on nutrients and lighting. As plants grow they obviously get closer to the light, so be careful they’re not getting too much.
Vegetation and flowering
- After seeding, the next important phases in a plant’s life are vegetation and flowering. You need to make sure that the environmental conditions are perfect for these stages to maximize your yield and yield quality.
- You can use height to determine the growth time for your plants in the vegetative phase. The plant may double its height during the phase of flowering. Ideally the plant should be left in a vegetative stage till its height is 6 to 18’’.
- Once your plant has grown up to 18’’, it’s time to start the flowering process. Balance of lighting has a vital role at the flowering phase. Adjust the light schedule to provide 12 hours of light a day.
- As plants begin to flower, within the first couple of weeks you’ll be able to judge the sex of the plant.
- Female plants will start growing white hairs around the nodes/branches, these will turn into white wispy almost shoot-like ‘pistils’.
- Whereas in male plants, after a week or two, small grape-like balls will become visible, which will grow into bunches (pollen sacs). These bunches may also resemble bananas, in shape and color. (So, yes, balls and a phallic shape. If that helps you remember.)
- Check, too, for hermaphrodite plants. Sometimes a plant will develop female pre-flowers on one part and male on another. So continue to keep an eye on plants that you thought were female, and don’t just judge on one preflower.
- Remove all the male plants now as they will pollinate females. Also remove hermaphrodite plants that will self-pollinate and may pollinate other plants too.
- Continue to keep an eye on flowers as a stressed female plant can begin to grow elongated yellow pollen sacs from the center of the bud. These ‘bananas’ produce pollen as soon as they emerge. Remove or separate them immediately, and if you see too many ‘nanners’, begin harvesting and cut your losses.
- Now comes the most patience demanding phase, as you wait for a plant to reach maturity. How long this takes totally depends on your system and the type of strain you’re growing. As a general estimate, it takes about 6 to 12 weeks for Cannabis Sativa to mature.
- One week before harvesting, only feed the plant with water. If you use other nutrients at this time, they can affect the taste when smoking your weed.
- Harvest when resin on the buds is clear and sticky, some of it beginning to darken to brown or amber.
- For greater control over flavor and effects:
- When you see 50 to 75% of pistils have turned red/brown, you’ll get a lighter flavor and mellower high.
- When 70 to 90% are brown you’ll get heavier stronger weed.
- 90 to 100% and it’s very nearly too late, the taste will be heavy and the effects more narcotic.
How Important Is Light for Marijuana Growing?
Marijuana requires a lot of light. This is the key factor in producing greater yields. The crop will not be sustainable if an appropriate amount and type of lighting is not provided. Whether you are growing cannabis in soil medium or in a hydroponic system, correct lighting is probably the most needed nutrient for healthy plant growth.
When it comes to lighting systems for indoor growing, there’s an almost overwhelming amount of choice available these days. And of course each option has its respective advantages and disadvantages—which we’ll cover shortly. Lighting systems can include bulbs, reflectors, ballast, timers, different color spectrums and various other features. But whatever the system, the intention is to activate rapid growth in your cannabis plants and maximize your yield.
Important Information About the Role of Light
What you need to determine before choosing the lighting system is the color and temperature of light. Different colors have different impacts. Look at CCT/Kelvin rating to determine color of HID fluorescent lights and CRI rating to gauge the intensity of the color. The higher the CRI the more natural and vibrant the stated colors will appear. For Kelvins, 2700K will be a warm red, 4200K a cooler blue color, 6500K is closest to sunlight; the lowest Kelvin rating is white, the higher the number the bluer the color. You will find varying advice on wattage of lights, with the maximum used by most growers being 1000W for the cultivation of Cannabis Sativa. More than 1000W will usually be harmful, but setups with lower wattages can work well. (However, when it comes to LED grow lights, you’ll find some much higher wattage LED models on the market. Because one of the great advantages of LEDs is that they run so much cooler than other grow lights.) A simple way to gauge light emitted per square foot by a non-LED bulb or any other non-LED light source: look at a light or bulb’s lumens rating. A marijuana crop needs luminosity of at least 3000 lumens per square foot. Although, for maximum productivity, you should provide 7000 to 10,000 lumens per square foot. A broader color spectrum lamp will tend to outperform a grow lamp with a higher lumen output. They need bright light, but it’s the blue and red parts in particular of the visible light spectrum that plants actually absorb and use to photosynthesize. Having said all that, though. we want to reiterate the importance of PAR values.
Lumens really only measure the intensity of the light to the human eye. For plants, which can only use wavelengths within the 400-700nm range of the light spectrum, it’s PAR that really matters, and the spectrum of light produced. Various kinds of bulbs can produce a broad spectrum of usable light for growing cannabis. Or you can have different lights for different stages of the growing cycle. But a good LED grow light is the simplest option. It will give you every kind of light the plant needs (and none that it can’t use), more efficiently, cheaply and with more user-friendly controls. However, a lot of available growing advice (especially for non-LED grow lights) still discusses lumens. Hence the discussion above.
Sources of Light
Growing a crop indoors you’ll obviously need some artificial light source—and you simply cannot afford to ignore good lighting if you are a serious grower and want results. Fluorescent and especially LED grow lights are great for the growth of marijuana plants. Compact fluorescent lights are also available on the market, commonly abbreviated to CFL. The best thing about CFLs is that they are available almost everywhere. HID lights may not be available in some places, but CFL is available pretty much anywhere in the world. Early LED lighting systems were not ideal, but the technology and costs improved rapidly and LED lights are now highly regarded for indoor growing of plants. As we said above, they’re by far the simplest option and increasingly the best option too—especially for a beginner. There are numerous benefits to using LED grow lights, but the one most worth mentioning here is that they produce full spectrum light with a low level of heat.
Placement of Light
The ideal distance of light from your plants totally depends on the type of source you’re using. If you are using heat emitting grow lights then you’ll need to place this type of light a bit higher above the plant. Check the light’s instructions. However, if you’re using something cooler like LED grow lights, hang them about 10 to 14 inches from the plant.
Lighting Schedules for Different Stages of Marijuana Plant Growth
- In the seedling phase, Marijuana needs 16 to 18 hours of proper lighting.
- In the vegetative stage, the requirement increases to 18 to 24 hours daily.
- In the flowering phase, give the plants 12 hours of light and increase the red part of the spectrum.
Remember that lighting plays the main role in nourishment of your marijuana crop. If lighting is not good enough, your harvest won’t be either.
Harvesting of marijuana
Let’s get one thing out of the way, harvesting marijuana doesn’t demand some sort of rocket science. Harvesting is actually a fun thing. It’s the reward for all the hard work you’ve put into all the growing phases of your crop. Here’s what you need to know to get it right…
When Should I Harvest My Marijuana Crop?
Let’s cut straight to the chase. The right time to harvest the marijuana is easy. In fact, we’ve already covered it above. Just look at the color of the pistils or hairs covering the buds. At the beginning of flowering they’re white, but when they’re ready for harvesting they start to turn dark brown. When around 70% have turned brown is a good time to get your harvesting tools ready. After that, it all depends how you like your weed to taste and the effects you’re after. The browner, the stronger heavier and more narcotic.
How Do I Harvest My Marijuana Flowers?
On the day you decide to harvest your marijuana, it’s a good idea to start off early in the morning. Harvesting isn’t difficult but can certainly be time-consuming work—especially if there’s plenty to harvest. You should start by cutting the plant wholly from its root. Cut all of the plants that you nourished in your grow area. To make things easier, begin by cutting the larger, heavier plants first. After cutting them, remove some of the larger fan leaves. Then hang some wire horizontally from the ceiling and hang the cut plants from it, upside down, keeping some space between plants for good air circulation. Once you’re done with that, it’s time to dry your plants. The cheap, economical and most reliable way to dry the plants is to leave them in open air. However, drying cabinets and automated curing machines are also available on the markets these days and can be very helpful in drying your cannabis quickly and efficiently. The latter are more for commercial growers though. Some people also use oscillating fans to improve ventilation when drying. The fans should be circulating air around the plants, not blowing directly on them. If your plants are moving, your fans are not positioned correctly.
What Time of Day Should I Harvest My Weed?
Time of day is important in the harvesting of cannabis. Ideally, harvest in the dark. Because at night, the female plants store the food which they prepared during the daylight by photosynthesis. However, that’s for outdoor growing. For indoor growing, night time is dependent on your plant’s lighting schedule. If lighting was scheduled during night hours, for instance, then harvest the product in the morning. Since it can be time-consuming work, check how many plants you have, estimate how long it’s going to take to cut them all, and make sure you’ve set aside enough free time to get it all done.
How Do I Prepare my Weed for Smoking?
The first thing to note is that plants don’t die when you cut them, they die when their water is dried out. So, before doing anything else to your harvest, you need to leave the plants for at least 7 days in an environment of around 70 degrees Fahrenheit and 50 percent humidity to dry the remaining water from the plant. Keep the room dark too. And check periodically that no mold or mildew is developing. Remove any affected parts immediately. A fan to increase air circulation will help to prevent this.
A quick note of caution:
During the first few days of drying, the plants will give off a strong, unmistakable scent of marijuana! But don’t be tempted to hurry things along. Drying is not a process to rush—it can take up to two weeks. Sometimes a few days longer. However, drying slowly ensures heavy, flavorful, aromatic buds. After drying, the final step to producing tasty, smokeable weed is curing proper (technically, the whole drying process from the moment the plants are cut is curing). When the twigs inside your buds become brittle and the outside of the bud feels dry to the touch, you’re ready to begin. The buds should just snap off, with no stringiness left behind. Ideally, larger stems should still bend. Some growers, however, like to trim the buds before curing. If you do so, use clean sharp scissors to trim away any remaining leaves. (But save them for making edibles, as they will still contain trichomes.) And if you have more than a couple of plants, a good bud trimming machine can save you a lot of time and hard work.
What is Curing and Why is it Necessary?
- Breaks down chlorophyll to improve taste and smoothness of buds.
- Brings out the unique flavor mix and aroma of your chosen cannabis strain.
- During curing and drying turns all the THC in fresh marijuana into psychoactive elements that make you high when smoking it.
- Reduces “harshness”, so that you’re less likely to cough or get a headache.
- Properly cured buds are less likely to cause negative side-effects such as anxiety and paranoia.
- Lessens the risk of mold or bacteria growing on your buds.
- Increases potency, according to many.
As a first-time grower you might be eager to try the fruits of your labor ASAP. But as you can see, it’s worth waiting—good curing accounts for almost 50% of the quality of your final product!
How Do I Cure My Marijuana?
Simply put the dried buds in mason jars (ideally 1 quart jars, which will hold about an ounce), about 75% full. Any that don’t feel dry to the touch, keep drying them. If buds already in a jar start to stick together when you shake the jar, they may still be too moist. Just leave the lid off for a while until they feel dry to the touch again.If you choose to invest in a hygrometer to test humidity in the jars, you’re aiming to keep your buds at a relative humidity of around 60-65%. Also, keep your jars in a cool dark environment. For the first 1-2 weeks remove lids and check your buds every 24 hours—they need air. If you smell ammonia or feel moistness, leave the jar open to air for 2-4 hours. If buds feel wet, remove them entirely for 12-24 hours. Don’t worry too much about over-drying. It’s best avoided, but even over-drying improves the cannabis. After a couple of weeks, when you’re sure that the buds are curing nicely, you can start to remove the lid just once a week. If all remains well for several weeks, once a month will do. Buds will continue to cure for up to 6 months. For long term storage, keep in an airtight container (such as the mason jar). Buds should have been curing for at least 3 months first. After 6 months, consider vacuum sealing them, or freezing the buds in tightly packed mason jars.
How long before you can smoke it?
Up to you. You can try a little at any stage in the curing or storage process and see what ‘vintage’ suits you best. That’s it—you’re done! You’ve got your first smokeable crop of marijuana.
In writing this step by step guide to growing weed indoors we wanted to help out newbie growers, many of whom can get confused by or bogged down in lengthy and overly-technical books. That’s not to say the information in those books is wrong, by any means—in fact, we gathered plenty of information for this article from those books. The problem we found with those books was that they just weren’t aimed at the newbie. Too much jargon. Too easy to get lost in advanced techniques you don’t need to know until you’ve tried growing a few times. We decided there needed to be an accessible guide for the beginner which focused purely on all the most useful starter information about marijuana and marijuana growing methods and gathered it all together in a concise, convenient manner. This guide will get you started. The rest you can learn along the way as you step up your growing, encounter new problems and solutions and hone your techniques. We hope that you’ll benefit from our efforts and that you enjoyed this beginner’s guide to growing marijuana indoors. We look forward to hearing from you through your feedback. And we wish you the best of luck in your budding weed growing career. Happy growing!
Next Level Weed Growing
Made it through our beginner’s guide and starting to get the hang of this whole weed growing thing? Looking to step up your marijuana growing game to pro level? You couldn’t do much better than to invest $57.00 in a copy of Ryan Riley’s 839-page Growing Elite Marijuana: The Complete Guide—revised and updated for 2017.
We know, 57 bucks looks pricey at first glance. But when you’re really getting serious about growing, a comprehensive grower’s bible like this could swiftly pay for itself many times over in better quality weed, higher yields, and fewer costly mistakes—and save you a lot of time-consuming trial and error into the bargain. Moreover, it’s not just one monster book you’ll get—it comes with a whole package of invaluable guides, including an audio version. If you think you might want to buy this book, go the page and skip almost all the way down to the bottom to avoid the incredibly long sales pitch. You will find the order form and the details for everything else at the bottom of the page. In short, this is all the most up-to-date professional knowledge you could ever need to take your marijuana growing to the next level—and have you literally living the life of Riley! (Sorry. We couldn’t resist.)
How To Quickly And Successfully Germinate Cannabis Seeds
All cannabis plants, whether tall and lanky Sativa trees or compact and sturdy Indica bushes, start from a single weed seed. This tiny brown nut contains everything necessary to eventually yield hundreds or even thousands of grams of potent buds! However, to reach that point, it’s important to place the seed in a special environment that will trigger life inside it, crack the shell open, and let the roots and stalk out.
In this article, we’ll be explaining how to germinate cannabis seeds and tell you about the best ways to do it. Before we start though, it’s important to know what environment cannabis seeds are most likely to pop in. Since in nature, they germinate in spring, logically, you want to put them in conditions that mimic fertile ground in spring – think plenty of moisture, little light, and mildly warm temperatures of around 18-22 C (64-71 F). Now, you’re ready to learn about the best ways to germinate cannabis seeds. Let’s dive right in!
Main Methods Of Cannabis Seed Germination
The following three methods have proved to be some of the easiest as well as the most effective. This means each of them is a great way to help your cannabis seed to sprout.
Germinating Cannabis Seeds In Soil
When spread naturally, marijuana seeds germinate directly in soil. So, why not recreate the natural process? This method is great for beginners because of how few steps it requires. All you need to do is make a 1.5-2cm (0.5-1 inch)-deep hole in the soil, place your seed in it, and lightly cover it with more soil. Then, water the spot above the seed and keep an eye on it to make sure the area stays moist most of the time. It’s also a good idea to cover your starting pot loosely with a plastic bag or a wrap to keep the environment humid and warm until the seedling shows up from the soil. This method is preferred by many because it eliminates the stress of transplantation that, at times, can be too tough on fragile seedlings.
Cannabis Strains For Beginners
Germinating Weed Seeds In Water
If you’re not ready to get your hands dirty just yet, it’s fine! Some growers start their seeds in a glass of water. This method is easy and quite effective. Practice shows that germinating in water normally makes around 90% of weed seeds pop. This method is pretty self-explanatory – all you need to do is place your cannabis seeds in a glass of fresh water away from light. Usually, the nuts crack open on the second day. For older seeds, however, the process may take up to 7 days, which is also fine. After the taproot shows, the seed is ready to be planted. Some growers wait for the seeds to drown (about 24 hours in), then transfer them to a wet paper towel – the method we’ll be explaining next.
How To Germinate Marijuana Seeds In A Paper Towel
This next method is a true classic that’s been shared grower to grower for generations. It’s also pretty simple and has everything you need to maintain the perfect environment for cannabis seeds to pop. To use this method of germination, place your seeds on a clean paper towel, fold it over them, and spray the towel lightly with water. After that, put the moist towel on one plate and cover it with a second plate to keep the seeds in the dark and not let the moisture evaporate. That’s pretty much it! This method can also be modified and improved upon. For example, instead of a paper towel, you can use two cotton pads for each of the seeds – these will be easier to open when it comes to removing the seed. Instead of plates, you can also place your seeds in an airtight container or ziplock bag to ensure the moisture stays in the towel/cotton pads.
Easy-To-Grow Cannabis Strains
How To Germinate Cannabis Seeds In Cotton Wool
Start with making a layer of cotton wool moist but not dripping wet, so that the excess water won’t suffocate the seeds. Then place your seeds on top, cover them with another layer (also moist), and put everything in a dark place.
Make sure the cotton wool is covered and won’t dry out while the seeds germinate.
The difficulty with germinating cannabis seeds in cotton wool is that the emerging roots may get entangled in it. For this reason, it’s better to use cotton pads in which cotton is more compacted and there is less fiber sticking out.
How To Germinate Autoflower Seeds
Cannabis is cannabis, and germinating autoflower seeds is exactly the same as any other variety. Just make sure to use the most effective technique because with autos you don’t want to lose any time at any stage, including germination.
Also, autoflower growers often choose the straight-into-the-final-pot method of germination to spare their precious babies any shock of transplanting.
Alternative Methods Of Cannabis Seeds’ Germination
Now let’s move to the more modern methods of cannabis seeds germination. These aren’t necessarily better in terms of germination rate, but still have some pros as well as cons that we find important to explain.
Germinating Cannabis Seeds In Peat Pellets Or Starter Cubes
If you want to give your seeds special treatment and make them feel loved from the very first day in your grow op, you might want to get your hands on peat pellets or starter cubes. So, how do you germinate marijuana seeds in rapid rooters, peat pellets, and starter cubes? These are all individual plugs of peat or a special seed starter mix that are incredibly easy to use and don’t leave much room for error. In the case of peat pellets (you may also know them as jiffy pellets), all you need to do is soak them in warm water, which will make the pellets expand. Then, squeeze the excess moisture out and place your seed (pointy side down) inside the pellet. Starter cubes and rapid rooters don’t require squeezing, but whatever you choose, you need to make sure your medium is slightly moist at all times. One of the greatest advantages of this method is that the seed germinates in complete peace and doesn’t need to be transferred from the pellet/starter cube/rapid rooter. After the seedling is out, just plant it into the soil together with what you were germinating the seed in.
Fast Flowering Cannabis Seeds
If you’re wondering how to germinate marijuana seeds for hydroponics, peat pellets, unlike other methods from this article, aren’t suitable for hydroponic setups. However, the rest of the techniques we’ll be discussing can be used for both soil and soilless media.
Germinating Cannabis Seeds In Rockwool Cubes
If you’re growing your seeds in a hydroponic setup, you might want to look into rockwool cubes for germination. As a material, rockwool is inert, cheap, and easy to find. Fans of hydroponic grows often choose rockwool for its mold-resistant qualities. The process of germination in rockwool cubes is the same as described in the previous method: simply place a seed inside a cube, water it, and keep it moist until the seedling is out.
Even though many growers prefer using rockwool for germination of their cannabis seeds, this method has quite a few drawbacks. First of all, the pH of new rockwool is not suited for cannabis seeds. It’s far too high and needs to be lowered before use. That’s why rockwool requires soaking overnight in pH-ed water and properly rinsed afterward. The second drawback of using rockwool for germination is that it’s a synthetic material that’s bad for both your health and the environment. When working with rockwool, it’s advised to use gloves and protective masks, because little pieces of the material can easily get into your mouth, eyes, and even end up in your lungs. Lastly, germination rates for seeds placed in rockwool cubes aren’t that great either – you can wait for your seeds to pop for weeks without any result.
Cannabis seed germination methods comparison table
In this article, we’ve covered five main germination methods. To sum everything up, here’s a comparison chart that can help you decide on how to germinate your marijuana seeds.
How To Germinate Cannabis Seeds For Hydroponics
DWC systems have seen a huge rise in popularity among home growers, making the question of germinating cannabis seeds for hydroponics extremely relevant. Is it any different? Not really, because the basics stay the same. You can still start with the paper towel method or a glass of water. However, we suggest using either starter cubes or rockwool when germinating cannabis seeds for hydroponics, as this will take the risk of damaging the sprouts to the minimum.
Here’s what you’ll need to do:
- Soak your starter cubes or rockwool pieces in clean, pH-neutral water for an hour.
- Place a seed inside the cube.
- Put the starter cubes/rockwool cubes with seeds in them inside the grow tray.
- Fill the bottom of the grow tray with an inch (2.5cm) of clean water or a very light nutrient solution.
- Dial in the temperature (20-30C/69-89F) and humidity levels (80-90%).
- Keep the lid on for conditions close to a greenhouse.
That’s it! After a couple of days, you’ll see your sprouts emerging.
How Long Does It Take For Marijuana Seeds To Germinate?
Your preferred method won’t make much difference in how long it takes for marijuana seeds to germinate. What actually matters when it comes to germinating cannabis seeds quickly is the quality of the seeds, their genetics, and how old they are. Normally, fresh seeds of good quality will never take more than 5 days to show taproot. However, if your seeds have been waiting for their hour for a little too long, it may take them around 10 days to germinate. Luckily, this won’t affect any characteristics of the future plant.
How To Germinate Old Cannabis Seeds
There are several tricks for germinating old cannabis seeds, all of them aimed at making the shell softer or thinner to help the sprout break out:
- Germinating cannabis seeds with hydrogen peroxide. Before germinating old cannabis seeds, try soaking them in a glass of room-temperature water with a teaspoon of hydrogen peroxide mixed in. This solution will help rehydrate and soften the seed’s shell. After 24 hours in this solution, switch to your preferred germination method.
- Scarifying old seeds. This is another proven method of germinating old cannabis seeds. Try lining a small matchbox with sandpaper, placing the seeds in, and shaking them there for about a minute. This will cover the seeds in microfractures, making it much easier for the sprout to break through. After scarifying the seeds, use your preferred germination method.
Tips For Caring After Germinating Seeds And Seedlings
As we’ve already pointed out, cannabis seedlings are very gentle, and you need to be careful not to put them in any danger or stress. Use the following tips, and your seedlings will make it safely to the next stage of their lifecycle.
In order to germinate and survive the first days of life, cannabis seeds and seedlings need to be kept under certain conditions like warm temperature, high levels of humidity, darkness for seeds/lots of light for seedlings, and, of course, peace and quiet. Outdoor environments can therefore be too unpredictable – if the weather changes and brings heavy rain or wind, or if a bird or cat decides to try and snack on the seedling, the young plant most likely won’t survive and you’ll have to start all over. That’s why we recommend germinating your seeds and growing seedlings indoors, where you have full control over their environment.
Choose Soil For Seedlings Wisely
There’s a common term among growers used to describe soil extremely rich in nutrients, and that’s “hot”. While hot soil is beneficial for cannabis in general, especially when made and used correctly, hot nutrient-rich soils, or super soils, are not the best option for young marijuana seedlings. In the early stages of cannabis development, the plant’s nutrient needs are quite low, and too much of them can actually hurt the young plant’s health. So, make sure to use more neutral soil for seedlings. A good trick that you can implement in your practice is to cover nutrient-rich soils with a layer of a more neutral medium and plant the seedling in this upper layer. The plant will develop, and once it’s ready for bigger nutrient intake, its roots will reach the underlying “hotter” soil. Remember that the vegetative stage requires nitrogen-rich media.
Give Seedlings Enough Light
After spending so much time inside its dark shell, seedlings are hungry for light, and plenty of it! As we suggest starting your plants indoors, this means you’ll need to install a light to satisfy the seedlings’ needs. The vegetative stage of cannabis requires mostly blue light spectrum, so anything from fluorescent lamps to full-spectrum LEDs, 100W and up, will work fine for seedlings. Just make sure the light is placed close enough to the plants. The optimal distance for fluorescent lights is 5-6 inches (13-16cm) and 8-12 inches (20-30cm) for LEDs. In case the seedlings need more light, they will let you know by getting tall and leggy. This condition is dangerous for them, so make sure your baby plants are receiving enough light.
Keep Them In A Mini-Greenhouse
Finally, another nice touch to keep your sprouts safe and sound would be to provide them with a small improvised greenhouse of their own. Loosely covering the starting pots or pellets with a plastic bag will do the trick. However, in garden stores, you can also find specialized containers with tall transparent lids. Whatever you choose, this will help the seedlings stay warm, hydrated, and safe from any dangers of the outside world.
Is It Legal To Germinate Cannabis Seeds?
This is a tricky question to answer, as the situation depends on the jurisdiction of your country of residence.
If you’re a citizen of Canada, the U.S., the Netherlands, or Spain – all countries with lighter cannabis policies – it’s legal to germinate cannabis seeds. However, additional rules apply depending on what part of the country you live in and what seed type you want to germinate. Nonetheless, it’s safe to assume that germination of cannabis seeds is legal everywhere where it’s legal to grow cannabis, and especially if you’re planning to start a garden of medicinal marijuana, you likely won’t break any rules by germinating seeds of strains with THC content lower than 1%.
In other countries, governments may draw the line at germination. For example, in the UK, it’s legal to trade and keep cannabis seeds, but you have to be careful with their germination, as this is where the law gets broken.
In our blog, we’ve covered the legality of cannabis seeds and everything you can do to stay safe. For more information, check out the following articles:
- “Where in the World Is It Legal To Buy Cannabis Seeds?” for tips for residents of Europe, China, South Africa, New Zealand, Turkey, and more.
- “The Legality Of Cannabis And Its Seeds In The UK”
- “Is It Legal to Buy Cannabis Seeds in the USA?”
- “Canada Pot Laws”
What’s the best temperature for germinating cannabis seeds?
Cannabis seeds prefer a warm environment for germination, with the most optimal temperature being 25C (78F). However, it’s okay to add/subtract a couple of degrees from this number while still keeping the air warm.
What’s the best pH for germinating cannabis seeds?
The perfect pH for cannabis seed germination is between 5.5-6.0.
What’s the best soil for germinating cannabis seeds?
It’s better to use light, easily drainable soil for germinating seeds, as this will not restrain the growing sprout. The soil for germination and seedlings should also be neutral or very light on nutrients – “hot” and nutrient-rich soils are only suitable for mature cannabis plants.
What’s the best humidity level for germinating cannabis seeds?
The germination stage requires high humidity levels of 80-90%.
What’s the fastest way to germinate cannabis seeds?
All methods described in this article are more or less the same in terms of the speed of germination. Much more depends on the freshness of your seeds – the fresher the seeds, the sooner they will germinate.
Do weed seeds need light to germinate?
Weed seeds germinate in the dark. So, even after you put a germinated seed in soil, you can keep the lights off. Until the seed pops up through the surface, that is.
Will cracked seeds germinate?
The protective shell on seeds is there for a reason, so any cracks or chips decrease the chances of successful germination. However, much depends on how long ago the crack appeared. And, anyway, it never hurts to try.
How long for cannabis seeds to break soil?
If you put a dry seed into wet soil, don’t expect the sprout to appear sooner than 60 hours. For pre-soaked beans or those that were put into the soil when they had shown a taproot, this may happen earlier. Sometimes in as little as 12 hours.
Cannabis seeds sold in reputable seed shops sprout very fast. Seeds that are old or have been stored improperly may take up to 10 days to sprout.
Starting Off Right
Now you can see that growing marijuana from seed isn’t at all that hard. Just remember to give your seeds enough TLC and dial in some environmental conditions to fit their needs. We’ve shown you some of the easiest and most effective methods of germinating pot seeds. Which one is your personal favorite? Let us and fellow growers know in the comments below.
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I’m trying my first seeds using the glass of water method, some seeds have sunk to the bottom and some are floating, are the floating ones no good?
If you lightly “tap” the floaters after they’ve soaked overnight, they’ll sink, they just weren’t heavy enough to break the surface. If they float back up, let them soak another day and tap it. If it still floats, you may have an issue. However, I’ve experienced floaters and after the overnight soak, every floater I needed to tap, sank, and germinated fine.
I used a cotton pad, wet in clear container w/ saran wrap over put in sunlight and after first day checked every 12hrs, and they cracked on the 2nd day. worked well
Hello Keepinit, we are happy to hear that our article is useful to the growers, we wish you best of luck in your hobby!
what i find the most effective way is placing in a coffee filter then putting a coffee filter on top, then put on a plate and place a cup over the seeds and coffee filters and keep moist until germination occurs
What’s the longest you’ve ever had to wait for a seed to germinate and still had a normal, healthy plant? I’ve had 100% success the last 4 strains I’ve germ’ed with seedlings showing in 3-5 days. Recently got 10 Northern Lights seeds from a local vendor, and the first three went 15 days and nothing. I retried with two more and I’m on day 8 and still nothing. Maybe just a bad batch of seeds.. I’m behind schedule now for my next grow!
most good and healthy seeds sprout after a couple days, some older seeds take longer. I usually give them a couple of days to germinate if i still see no signs after 5-6 days i start to get worried.
15 days is a lot. I’ve waited a week at most, longer than that u will see the seed get darker, kinda sluggish nd swelled, that’s a dead seed decomposing, sometimes they just flood
How’s it going? I’m new to the game and was wondering the best way of altering PH level of water? I have an abundance of 500ml bottled water that has a PH of 7.9, a good way off the optimal PH 6 required I know, but is there a way of adding solution to each bottle separately and if so any suggestions of best solution to use? Thanks.
Yes there is ph tester for water that takes drops to test which is the most efficient way to test ph. Also to adjust the ph you want to get ph-up or ph- down I believe general hydroponics is the company for it.
The pic at the top is wrong ,the seed is up side down pistols or the hairs should come out of the seed butt hole that’s how the pollen gets in .2 hairs pair seed one for seed the other for the food sac ,
What happens to Seeds overtime they dry out and the carbohydrate that’s inside of them to feed them becomes weaker. As far as the potency of genetics that does not change however I recommend soaking all Seed between 12 and 24 hours. I use of seed starter MassiveGro invented formula pH to round 5.8 I pour about a quarter inch in a cup put my seeds in there put the next couple on top of it to force them down into the liquid. Occasionally give them a shake you don’t want them to be floating when you plant them. Then I soak my paper towel are use the nice cotton felt like paper towels I think a Brauny or veva with that seed starter formula pour the seed right onto it a ring out the excess moisture put it in a 1 gallon freezer bag place bag up high where it is 80° or put it on the heat mat with a thermostat and check it after one day because it’ll sprout fast. I like to let the sprout get a half inch long and then plant it The biggest problem you have with old seed is the lack of carbohydrate it may sprout then usually burn up all it has and die right away. Unless your seeds got hot you probably won’t have any problem unless they’re more than four years old. Old seed you can assist the carbohydrate by watering the soil with potato water a few drops of corn syrup or a fish fertilizer soak and Endo Mycorrhiza sprinkled around the seed. NPK industries wrong line of Omina is a good gentle amino acid helps break down substances so plants uptake faster when everything’s good I usually mix half strength of the weak dosage. NPK raw stuff can be bought on Amazon in small 2 ounce packages there everything’s pretty concentrated usually last you quite a while. But This is where a seed starter formula comes in because it usually has the carbohydrate to keep it going right away. I use pro mix BX with added perlite and when plants are tiny etc. I always measure my water and times with measuring spoons till a plant is healthy pro mix keeps plants from damning off as long as you’re not drenching it right away because it doesn’t dry out very fast easiest way to kill seeds to drowned it that’s why I measure watering and write it down I don’t try to push or stress my plants I either used seed starter fertilizer or plain pH water until they are about 6 inches high before a poor nutrients to them and once a week I do a full soil drench and drain prior to that you’re probably talking tablespoon or two of Water. Never let your pH get above 6.4 you lock out nutrients and you also root slower, once your plants are growing an strong between the 6 inch and 12 inch stage I’ll use about two weeks of red light will actually give you more roots. You can go to in NPK-University.com sign up for Harley Smith’s advanced grow you won’t be sorry Harley is like the master of the world lol
Germinate Marijuana Seeds
We kind of view this as unnecessary, but have added it in because many people swear by it. The theory is that by weakening the tough hull, it makes it easier for the tender seed to emerge. Some gardeners use a nail file to put a small nick in the marijuana seed; others use sandpaper to thin and scratch the hull.
Peat pellets or Jiffy pots and Rapid rooters
These can be found at most garden centers in home improvement or large department stores such as Home Depot, Lowes, Walmart, etc. These are thin wafers filled with peat (Jiffy Pots) or composted bark (Rapid Rooter) and a fabric outer layer that plump up considerable when wet and only cost about 10 cents apiece when bought in bulk though most are sold with a plastic humidity dome. From experience, these are the most foolproof method we have yet to use and have a high success rate. Simply wet the wafer and after it expands, push the marijuana seed in the center just until it is no longer visible. Then place the pot in the humidity dome and wait. Several days after the sprout appears, put the peat pot in the medium of your choice. Success can be high with this method. Rockwool cubes used for germination Rockwool is made out of spun melted rock or mineral fibers. They hold moisture quite easily and may be used in the same manner as peat pellets. Because they are slower to dry out, a humidity dome is usually not required. Starting the seed off in Rockwool is an excellent method of germinating marijuana seeds especially if you are going to use hydroponics for growing. One of the best characteristics of Rockwool is it contains a lot of air and is generally a nice start to your seeds life. Try and use 1 inch X 1 inch cubes, soak the cubes with water then squeeze a little excess water out, place the seeds (sideways) into a small hole in the top, pinch the hole together or cover with more Rockwool, then place the Rockwool cubes in a tray container. You can fill the container with water later on and the Rockwool will suck it up using capillary action. Try and use good quality spring water, it can be the cheap stuff, or rain but it is better than water from the faucet which might be outside the pH required by marijuana. Place the tray in a warm dark spot to germinate. After a day or so you will see the seeds crack open and the roots take hold in the medium. You can then transplant the entire Rockwool cube over to the main hydroponic system.
How to look after marijuana seedlings
Your marijuana plant will start to grow very quickly after germination. It is very fragile when it is small and sometime growers put a humidity dome over the top of them which protects and keeps them warmer but make sure there are holes drilled into the dome so that some air can make it in. Keep the seedlings away from draughts and use a very diluted nutrient mix when watering. Pot it up to a bigger pot once it has established itself and filled the pot or container you started it in.
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Final notes on marijuana seed germination:
No matter which method you use, the temperature requirement is the same. Optimal is about 75º to 80ºF (24º C to 26.8ºC). Going above 90º F (32.2º C) can damage the seedling. Seedlings may still germinate as low as 65º F (18.3º C), but will take longer. Germinating marijuana seeds is quite easy, so why do people struggle so? Too wet, too cool and too much handling are the main culprits. Many growers swear by the use of distilled or RO (reverse osmosis) filtered water. We have just about the hardest tap water in the USA, yet never have any problems. Use purified water if it makes you feel better, but personally we see no need to. If you are or want to be a serious grower, keep different weed strains separate from each other. Be sure to label your seeds with which strain and date before you start germination.