Introduction Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound produced by the cannabis plant, is quickly growing in popularity and headed toward mainstream acceptance. CBD oil is finding its way into a variety of products, from tinctures and drops to CBD-infused edibles and CBD balms, as well as a wide range of cosmetics. CBD oil is even Shop the best CBD oils, CBD oil tinctures, CBD oil drops online at CBD.market. Choose from full spectrum, broad spectrum, isolate options with low and high potencies (from 100 mg to 6000 mg CBD) and various flavors for sale. Everyone is talking about CBD Oil. But what is it? Where does it come from? Find out more about this versatile medicine.
What Is CBD Oil? Our 2022 Ultimate Guide
Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound produced by the cannabis plant, is quickly growing in popularity and headed toward mainstream acceptance. CBD oil is finding its way into a variety of products, from tinctures and drops to CBD-infused edibles and CBD balms, as well as a wide range of cosmetics. CBD oil is even becoming popular among pet owners who wish to help their pets live healthier lives.
With that clarified, let’s delve into The Ultimate Guide to CBD Oil.
How to Use This Guide to CBD
This guide is broken up into 5 sections:
In Chapter 1 we’ll discuss some basic information about CBD oil, such as what it is and where it comes from. We’ll also provide answers to some of the most frequent questions asked by new CBD users.
In Chapter 2 we’ll go into some detail about some of the ingredients in CBD oil and how they affect the human body.
In Chapter 3 we’ll delve into the potential health benefits of CBD.
In Chapter 4 we’ll go over some of the products that contain CBD oil and the ways in which you could use CBD oil.
Then, finally, in Chapter 5, we’ll get you started by providing some advice on how to choose the right product for your needs and how to find a trustworthy source.
The information in the first three chapters falls under the heading of “good to know,” but if you’re anxious to get started, it’s not required reading.
If you’ve already started using CBD or have purchased some CBD products, we recommend that you skip to Chapters 4 and 5 so that you can make sure you have the right CBD product for you, learn how to use it properly, and determine how much you should be taking. Once you’re clear on usage and serving recommendations, you can go back and get better educated on how CBD oil works and why it’s commonly used.
A Short History of CBD Oil
CBD oil has a long and storied past. However, as little as a quarter of a century ago, no one had ever heard of CBD. Today, modern science has identified a family of molecules known as cannabinoids as well as the human endocannabinoid system. We’re just beginning to understand through human studies how CBD affects the body.
The History of CBD Oil in Ancient Times
The earliest written record of the use of cannabis appears in ancient China around 6000 B.C., shortly after human civilization arose, but the most direct evidence of the use of cannabis for wellness began to appear around 2700 B.C.
In 2737 B.C., as recorded in the first editions of the Pen Ts’ao Ching, Chinese emperor Shen-Nung was using cannabis in topical ointments and teas.
As time went on and human civilization progressed, writings espousing the benefits of hemp began to appear in pharmacopeias across Asia.
The use of cannabis extracts appeared in the second century B.C. in the writing of Hua Tuo.
Around A.D. 77, the Romans began using hemp extensively in the healing arts. In his writings, a scholar by the name of Pliny the Elder claimed that cannabis extract was helpful for relieving discomfort.
In India, cannabis was considered a sacred plant gifted by the gods. The Atharvaveda was considered a storehouse of knowledge that was useful for everyday life. This manuscript details the use of cannabis flowers and seeds in a variety of balms and tinctures.
Cannabis has even been found buried in the tombs of Ancient Greeks and Egyptians who also notated formulations for cannabis remedies.
The History of CBD Oil in the West
By the sixteenth century, cannabis was being cultivated all over Europe. Hemp was so valuable to society at that time that, in 1533, Henry VIII required all farmers to grow hemp.
Many physicians of the age, such as Garcia de Orta and Li Shih-Chen, were documenting the use of hemp extract as a support for appetite and for maintaining wellness.
In the 1600s, hemp cultivation came to North American colonies. The colony of Virginia even created laws which mandated the cultivation of hemp by farmers. Similar laws were passed in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Hemp seeds were even considered legal tender and used to pay for goods and services in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland.
A popular medical text of the time called, “Anatomy of Melancholy,” written by Robert Burton, noted that hemp extract was helpful in supporting mood.
By the eighteenth century, hemp’s uses were documented in “The New England Dispensatory” and “Edinburgh New Dispensatory”— two highly respected pharmacopeias of the day.
As the industrial age was unfolding, a surgeon named W. B. O’Shaughnessy began to extol the virtues of hemp in the American Southwest. A professor at the Medical College of Calcutta, O’Shaughnessy conducted experiments to determine the effects of hemp extracts on animals and humans suffering from rheumatic diseases, cholera, tetanus, and hydrophobia.
The History of CBD Oil in Modern Times
In the early 20th century, medicines such as opioids began to be developed. The use of cannabis-based preparations began to decline. However, many medications were developed, which combined cannabis with other pharmaceuticals in everything from cough syrup to sleep aids.
By the late 1930s, the war on cannabis erupted, and the cultivation of cannabis became illegal. In 1970, possession of any form of cannabis was banned by the Controlled Substances Act, which listed cannabis — including both hemp and marijuana — as Schedule I substances with no medicinal benefits and a high risk of dependence.
In the late 1960s the mysteries of cannabinoids, including CBD, began to unfold as researchers discovered the role of the human endocannabinoid system in maintaining good health. We’ll discuss this in more detail shortly.
As the 1970s progressed, however, cannabis once again began being used for medical treatment. A quarter of a century later, in 1996, the state of California legalized the use of cannabis for the treatment of certain medical conditions, despite the federal ban.
Over the past few decades, there has been an explosion of research into the benefits of hemp-derived CBD and other cannabinoids. CBD has been quickly gaining acceptance in the U.S. as a result of media coverage by respected health experts such as Dr. Sanjay Gupta. The message of CBD’s benefits is beginning to reach the masses.
Today, CBD oil is available to most people in the United States, and research into the effects of CBD on the human body has ramped up substantially. Modern technology has provided methods of refining and isolating hemp-derived CBD and even increasing the bioavailability of CBD oil through technologies such as nanoemulsions, which make CBD water-soluble and increase its potency.
The demand for CBD is growing so quickly that sales are expected to surpass $2 billion by 2022.
This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with your doctor before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A doctor’s advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. These statements have not been medically reviewed or evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not FDA approved. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
This guide contains information that will help people make educated decisions about why and how to use CBD oil. It is not intended to provide medical advice.
It’s important that the reader seek the advice of a qualified medical professional who is well versed in CBD education before beginning use.
And with that, let’s get started.
Ultimate Guide to CBD Oil Chapter 1:
CBD Oil Basic Information
In this chapter, we’ll discuss some basic information such as what CBD oil is, where it comes from and how it’s produced. We’ll also answer some of the most frequently asked questions asked by new CBD users.
CBD oil is a natural oil which is extracted from the flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant. It is used by people all over the world for a variety of purposes.
Broad spectrum CBD oil contains a variety of active compounds such as cannabinoids and terpenes, which we will discuss in greater detail in Chapter 2. In each other’s presence, these compounds work even better, making the health benefits of CBD products more pronounced.
Depending on the formulation of a product, it may contain other beneficial components such as omega fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
About the Cannabis Plant
Cannabis is one of a family of plants known as Cannabaceae. There are two main species of the cannabis plant that are cultivated for human consumption, namely Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa.
Sativa plants are taller and produce more fiber and are therefore the species from which hemp cultivation arose. Indica plants are shorter and bushier and less suitable for farming for either industrial purposes or for production of food, but well-suited for producing medical marijuana.
What Are the Differences Between Hemp and Marijuana?
Marijuana is high in the psychoactive compound THC, or delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound in marijuana that causes a high.
Marijuana is rightly considered to be a “drug.” It is cultivated mainly for medicinal and “recreational” purposes. Both indica and sativa strains, as well as hybrids of the two, are used to produce marijuana.
The United States federal government considers marijuana to be a Class I controlled substance. However, many U.S. states have instituted legislation to regulate the cultivation of marijuana and allow its use as medicine. Some states have also legalized marijuana for recreational use.
Hemp is not marijuana. Although hemp does contain some cannabinoids, it has negligible amounts of THC. In fact, in order to be legally cultivated, hemp must contain less than 0.3% THC. Hemp is also grown as an industrial crop for the use of fibers in textiles and even building materials. Most industrial hemp is grown for its fiber and contains relatively small concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes, so it is not the most desirable source of CBD oil.
While many of the CBD products on the market are derived from this kind of industrial hemp, the CBD oil in Joy Organics products is made from a CBD-rich strain known as PCR hemp. PCR is short for phytocannabinoid rich — it contains as much as ten times the concentration of CBD as generic industrial hemp and only negligible amounts of THC. It does not cause a high.
Joy’s friends get updates on new products and special coupons!
Types of CBD Oil
Let’s now take a look at some of the types of CBD oil products and compare their qualities. It’s important to remember that, as the industry grows, some of these terms have evolved.
CBD From PCR Hemp vs. CBD From Marijuana
Oils can also be extracted from marijuana the same way they can be extracted from hemp. The oils made from marijuana are referred to as cannabis oil. Extracts made from marijuana may contain some CBD but are intended to contain enough THC to cause a high. Such extracts made from marijuana remain as illegal Schedule 1 drugs under the Controlled Substances Act.
For the purposes of this document, we are only concerned with CBD oil produced from PCR hemp. We are not concerned with THC-containing cannabis oils made from marijuana, nor are we concerned with extracts of industrial hemp which have low levels of cannabinoids and terpenes.
Raw CBD Oil vs. CBD Concentrate
When the essential oils of the hemp plant are first extracted, the resulting product is considered raw hemp extract. This raw extract can be put through a series of filtration and distillation processes to remove unwanted compounds, such as waxes and chlorophyll, and produce various classes of oils differing in purity and CBD content. These refined oils are referred to as CBD concentrate or CBD distillate.
What Is Full Spectrum CBD Oil?
Earlier we mentioned another class of compounds called terpenes. Raw PCR hemp extract contains terpenes as well as other cannabinoid compounds similar to CBD. Because it retains the natural balance of cannabinoids and terpenes found in the original plant, we refer to these products as full spectrum CBD oils.
What Is Broad Spectrum CBD Oil?
Broad spectrum CBD oil is very similar to a full spectrum oil. Full spectrum CBD oil, as we mentioned, retains the original concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes found in raw PCR hemp extract.
Broad spectrum CBD oil also contains these concentrations of beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes but has all trace amounts of THC extracted. This is ideal for those who want absolutely no THC in their CBD products.
What Is CBD Isolate?
CBD can also be isolated and purified. Pure CBD is known in the industry as CBD isolate. In their pure form and at room temperature, cannabinoids are solid crystals. Purified cannabinoids are colorless and odorless. CBD isolate can be consumed directly or used as an additive in other preparations such as edibles and beverages. Unfortunately, a CBD isolate is devoid of the beneficial terpenes and other cannabinoids found naturally in the plant.
What Is CBD-Rich Oil/Phytocannabinoid-Rich (PCR)?
Another term you may hear is CBD-rich oil. This term is generally used to label a CBD oil which has gone through some initial filtration and distillation steps to remove unwanted compounds such as chlorophyll and waxes. The resulting product has a higher concentration of CBD than the raw extract, hence the term CBD-rich oil.
What Is CBD-Infused Oil?
The term CBD-infused can be used to describe either a product which has been infused with purified CBD isolate or a product which has been infused with a CBD-rich, full spectrum or broad spectrum concentrate. A properly labeled product will specify which ingredients were used.
If the ingredients include “CBD isolate,” then the product is not full spectrum. If the ingredients include “CBD-rich hemp oil (or extract)” or “full/broad spectrum CBD oil,” then obviously you’re getting a full/broad spectrum CBD product. It’s important to know which is in a product because they produce different benefits.
A List of CBD Oil Products
To summarize, there are a variety of CBD products which contain varying levels of CBD as well as other cannabinoids and terpenes.
- Hemp seed oil — Oil produced from hemp seeds, does not contain CBD.
- Raw industrial hemp extract — A low-quality source of CBD oil.
- Raw PCR hemp extract — A high-quality, full or broad spectrum product which is rich in CBD and contains the naturally occurring compounds in hemp, including cannabinoids and terpenes.
- CBD concentrate or distillate — A full spectrum or broad spectrum product from which unwanted compounds have been removed.
- CBD isolate — Purified CBD that does not contain other beneficial terpenes and cannabinoids.
- CBD-rich oil/Phytocannabinoid-rich (PCR) — Either full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD concentrate or oil infused with CBD concentrate.
- Broad spectrum oil — An oil rich in CBD and the beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes present in hemp EXCEPT for THC.
- CBD-infused — Generally refers to a product infused with pure CBD, but is also used sometimes to refer to a full spectrum product.
Now that we’ve cleared up these terms, let’s answer some of the most common questions asked by first-time CBD users.
Frequently Asked Questions from Beginners
As you can see, CBD oil is a complicated product, and the current CBD market can be compared to the Wild West. There is a lot of misinformation floating around about CBD and, of course, this causes a great deal of confusion.
One of the main points of confusion comes from the fact that the media often uses the term marijuana to refer to hemp and vice versa. This raises other issues, the most common of which are whether or not it causes a high or if it has any side effects. Let’s answer each of these questions in brief and dispel any doubts that you might have about CBD products.
Does CBD Oil Get You High?
No, CBD oil shouldn’t get you high. Properly produced CBD oil from hemp does not contain THC in high enough concentrations to cause a high.
THC acts upon particular receptors in the brain, which changes brain chemistry and therefore alters consciousness. CBD does not trigger these receptors. In fact, CBD might actually prevent them from reacting to THC and thus minimize its effects.
CBD oils produced by some manufacturers can contain trace amounts of THC. However, Joy Organics products, including CBD oils, are produced using a technology that extracts THC while leaving the other cannabinoids and terpenes intact.
It’s important to note that all human bodies are different and, if taking extremely large amounts of a product, CBD may cause drowsiness.
What Are the Side Effects of CBD Oil?
While pharmaceutical drugs are often developed to target particular bodily systems and provide particular effects, Mother Nature is not always so exacting. The effects of organic compounds can be many and can vary from person to person. Oftentimes herbal compounds can have both desired effects and unwanted effects. We call these unwanted effects adverse side effects.
In order to determine the adverse side effects, you need to know what the desired effects are. The effects which are desired by one user may be side effects for another user. As a result, it could make identifying side effects tricky.
Let’s look at an example of how CBD might work differently for different people. Some people use CBD oil in order to support a good night of rest but may also feel drowsiness during the day. If you want to feel awake during the day, as most do, feeling sleepy would be an unwanted side effect.
Will CBD Make Me Drowsy?
CBD has what are called biphasic properties. We’ll discuss this more in chapter 4, but this just means that CBD oil may have different effects depending on the serving. Taken in nominal servings, CBD is unlikely to cause drowsiness. However, if you use CBD in higher servings, there is the potential that it could cause drowsiness.
Alcohol is a perfect example of a substance with biphasic properties. Below a certain blood level, alcohol provides a stimulating effect and can make its user more active and social, while larger amounts of alcohol can have a depressant effect resulting in unconsciousness.
Can I Give My Pet CBD Oil?
Yes, high-quality CBD is safe for pets. However, the size and activity level of your pet will determine the optimal serving size. Pets can range in weight from under a pound for rodents to many hundreds of pounds for animals such as horses.
Some pets are pretty much sedentary and don’t get much exercise, while others are highly active and have a much higher metabolism, which is why the effects of CBD may vary. It’s a good idea to talk with a veterinarian who is familiar with CBD’s uses before you give your pet CBD in the form of CBD Dog Treats or CBD Oil Tincture for Pets.
Ultimate Guide to CBD Oil Chapter 2:
CBD Oil and Wellness
CBD is short for cannabidiol. It is just one of many different molecules called cannabinoids that are found in the cannabis plant. CBD is not an acronym. Cannabidiol has been shortened to CBD simply because it’s customary for cannabinoids to have a three-letter designation, such as THC for tetrahydrocannabinol, CBG for cannabigerol, CBN for cannabinol and so forth. THC is arguably the most famous member of the cannabinoids family — it’s the one found in marijuana that causes a high. We’ll take a quick look at some other common cannabinoids later on.
What Are Cannabinoids?
Cannabinoids are active compounds produced by all cannabis plants. They account for most of the health benefits of cannabis. Cannabinoids found in plants are technically called phytocannabinoids. Phytocannabinoids mimic compounds which we call endocannabinoids that are produced naturally by all mammals.
- Phytocannabinoids — Cannabinoids produced by plants.
- Endocannabinoids — Cannabinoids produced by human or other mammal bodies.
Other cannabinoids found in PCR hemp include cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). Cannabichromene (CBC) is the third most common cannabinoid found in cannabis. Like CBD, cannabichromene is non-psychoactive. Cannabigerol (CBG) is produced early on in the hemp’s growth cycle. Both CBC and CBG are believed to have properties similar to those of CBD.
What Do Endocannabinoids Do?
Endocannabinoids, those produced naturally by our bodies, are signaling molecules. They are technically called neurotransmitters. Hormones are a more familiar type of neurotransmitter.
A vast array of neurotransmitters are produced by the nervous system in response to various states of health and also environmental factors. They interact with receptors found on the surface of cells throughout our bodies. Their job is to instruct a cell to adjust its activities. This can include changing how cells react to other neurotransmitters.
In order to illustrate how neurotransmitters work, let’s use an analogy.
The brain doesn’t connect with every cell in your body, just like traffic officers can’t connect directly with every car on the road to be able to instruct individual drivers how to behave in every traffic situation. In order to manage traffic, we implement traffic signals. These include street signs, traffic lights, the lines on the road, and so on. Traffic signals inform drivers where they can and cannot travel, when they should stop and when they should go and how fast they are allowed to move.
Some of these signals can sense what’s going on in the environment, such as when a car pulls up to a traffic light. The sensor triggers a controller, causing the light to change, thereby changing the behavior of the drivers approaching that intersection.
In the same way, your body’s nervous system connects to a wide variety of sensors to keep track of every system in your body. The signals from these sensors are decoded by the brain and the nervous system. If it is determined that a system has gone out of balance, the nervous system produces neurotransmitters, which travel through the bloodstream and interact with receptors on cells, instructing them to adjust their behavior.
The Human Endocannabinoid System (ECS)
Now that we understand how neurotransmitters work to adjust our cellular activity, let’s take a look at the role of cannabinoids in particular and their role in supporting homeostasis, a state of balance, within the body.
The human endocannabinoid system (ECS) has two components. First is the endocannabinoid receptors found on the surface of cells throughout the body. Second is the endocannabinoids themselves that interact with those receptors.
For example, a well-known endocannabinoid is called anandamide. Anandamide is responsible for the production and uptake of serotonin. Serotonin is often referred to as the “bliss molecule” because levels of serotonin in the body are directly associated with mood. Serotonin is the neurotransmitter that is responsible for “runner’s high.”
The endocannabinoid system is vast and far-reaching. It regulates a wide array of bodily functions, from appetite regulation to sleep patterns, moods, metabolism, immune response, the lifespan of cells and much more.
List of Common Cannabinoids
Below is a list of the most common cannabinoid molecules found in cannabis.
- Cannabidiol (CBD) — The second most common cannabinoid produced by the cannabis plant that is non-psychotropic (it doesn’t get you high).
- Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — The primary psychoactive compound in marijuana that gives users a feeling of euphoria.
- Cannabichromene (CBC) — This third most common cannabinoid, also non-psychoactive, is thought to support mood and joint and muscle function.
- Cannabinol (CBN) — Believed to support joint and muscle function and aid a good night’s rest.
- Cannabigerol (CBG) — Non-psychoactive and used to support mood and joint and muscle function.
- Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCv) — Less psychoactive than THC.
- Cannabidivarin (CBDv) — Similar to CBD in its effects.
- Delta(8) THC — Similar to delta(9)-THC, less psychoactive and may support a relaxed mood.
- THCa and CBDa — Compounds found in raw cannabis that are non-psychotropic.
What Are Terpenes?
Terpenes are a class of volatile hydrocarbon compounds produced by the cannabis plant as well as most other plants. However, cannabis is currently the most terpene-dense plant known to humans. Terpenes readily evaporate at room temperature, and our noses are highly sensitive to them.
Terpenes are recognized as safe for human consumption by the Food and Drug Association and are used in a wide variety of food and cosmetic products.
Although terpene molecules are all very similar, each has its own unique scent and flavor. Various combinations of terpenes are responsible for the distinct aromas of cannabis strains.
Terpenes can also have powerful effects on our bodies. In fact, terpenes have been utilized by humans for millennia in what’s commonly known as aromatherapy.
For example, the scent of citrus is produced primarily by a combination of limonene and pinene, both of which are thought to elevate mood.
Some common terpenes include linalool, myrcene, caryophyllene, limonene, terpinolene, citronellol, and camphene. The traditional uses of these terpenes and others vary, but they include use as support for muscle and joint function, mood, and overall wellness.
In cannabis, terpenes are produced in the highest concentrations in the plant’s female flowers. Terpenes also act on cannabinoid receptors and are known to modify the effects of cannabinoids.
The Entourage Effect
Although not as potent as cannabinoids in terms of their overall benefits, terpenes are valuable components of cannabis.
The overall effect of the rich combination of cannabinoids and terpenes is known as the entourage effect. In the case of cannabis, these cannabinoids and terpenes work together to produce a wide range of benefits, which is thought to be greater than the sum of its individual components.
More research is needed to determine the exact role that terpenes play in the overall effects of CBD oil, but it seems clear that terpenes work in concert with cannabinoids to produce a richer effect than CBD alone.
As we mentioned earlier, some CBD oil products are actually oil infused with pure CBD. These products do not have the added benefits of terpenes and other cannabinoids and do not produce the entourage effect. They are not recommended.
Ultimate Guide to CBD Oil Chapter 3:
What Are the Benefits of CBD Oil?
In just over a half century, cannabinoids have gone from obscurity to the subject of intense research.
The secrets of cannabinoids are vast, and they run deep. After many years of study, still very little is known about how cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system as well as other complex organs and systems in our bodies.
But one thing is certain — CBD does have an effect on these complex systems that themselves are not fully understood. Determining the exact mechanisms that are producing CBD’s wide range of effects might take many more decades.
In the meantime, much research is underway, and many studies about the effects of CBD on the human body have already been published.
In this chapter, we’ll take a look at some of the reasons why CBD is being studied and we’ll also go through the benefits of CBD.
History of CBD Research
In 1968, a report written by the UK government’s Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence stated that “the long-term consumption of cannabis in moderate doses has no harmful effects…Cannabis is less dangerous than the opiates, amphetamines and barbiturates, and also less dangerous than alcohol…” That same year, the University of Mississippi was entrusted to grow marijuana for research by the predecessor agency to the DEA.
Only two years later, the United States declared marijuana a Class I substance with a high potential for abuse and no medicinal value. Two years after that, in 1972, a report based on a comprehensive study by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare recommended that marijuana be removed from the scheduling system and decriminalized. Then-President Richard Nixon rejected the recommendations.
In a court battle in 1976, a federal judge ruled that a plaintiff in a lawsuit against the government was using marijuana out of “medical necessity,” making the plaintiff, Robert Randall, the first legal medical cannabis patient.
In 1978, as a direct result of the lawsuit, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) began supplying cannabis to several patients whose physicians applied for and received “compassionate use” rights under Investigational New Drug Applications (IND) rules. Most of the medical research done on cannabis has taken place in the 40 years since 1978.
The human endocannabinoid system was discovered in steps. In 1988, the first cannabinoid receptor was found in the brain of a rat. In 1992, researcher Raphael Mechoulam and NIMH researchers William Devane and Dr. Lumir Hanus discovered the first endocannabinoid. These discoveries resulted in a wave of new studies into the effects of cannabinoids.
In 1993, the American Medical Student Association unanimously endorsed a statement calling for the down-scheduling of cannabis to Schedule 2. Since that time and based on reams of data, there have been scores of attempts to pressure the federal government to relent on this matter. So far, none have been successful.
Let’s now take a look at some of the research that has been done in the past few decades into the mechanisms and effects of cannabinoids and the ECS.
What We’ve Learned About CBD
CBD’s Effects On Mood
CBD is commonly used to support emotional stability. Research shows that CBD has an effect on levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, which we mentioned earlier. Anandamide is produced by the nervous system to stimulate the uptake of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is often referred to as the “happy molecule” because of its ability to improve mood.
When your mood is low, you might be dealing with a low amount of serotonin. An increase in serotonin can correspond to an increase in feelings of well-being. It all goes back to the endocannabinoid system — a balanced ECS is a happy ECS.
CBD’s Effects On Sleep
Another common reason why people use CBD oil is to help them create normal healthy sleep cycles. It’s no secret that a rough sleep usually results in a bad mood the next day, and nobody wants that. When taken before bed, CBD may help you roll out of bed feeling fresh and energized the next day.
Ultimate Guide to CBD Oil Chapter 4:
Using CBD Oil
In this chapter, we’ll take a look at some of the methods by which CBD is used. We’ll discuss some of the factors involved in determining serving sizes. We’ll also look at the strengths and drawbacks of each method and discuss which methods are better for different situations.
Bioavailability of CBD
Not all methods for using CBD are equal. Their effectiveness depends not only on the method of consumption and the ingredients in the product but also on the bioavailability of the CBD afforded by each method.
The bioavailability of any active compound is the percentage of a given serving that ends up being available for your body to use.
In the case of CBD oil, the active ingredients include both cannabinoids and terpenes. However, for the sake of discussion, we’ll talk only about the bioavailability of CBD itself.
A bioavailability of 100% would signify that 100% of the CBD in the product is available to your body. The only way to achieve 100% bioavailability is through intravenous administration — meaning injection directly into the bloodstream.
Every other method of consumption will result in some percentage of the CBD becoming unavailable to the body for various reasons, such as becoming trapped in fatty tissues or metabolized (broken down) before it has a chance to enter the bloodstream.
Each method of CBD oil consumption has a particular range of bioavailability. We’ll discuss these factors next and will also touch on them when discussing the benefits and drawbacks of each method.
Bioavailability of CBD Tinctures
A tincture is a liquid — usually an oil or an alcohol base — which has been infused with CBD oil. CBD oil tinctures are taken by mouth. If you decide to use CBD with this method, the CBD in the tincture can be absorbed pretty easily.
It is generally assumed that the bioavailability of CBD in tinctures is twice that of edibles — anywhere from 10 to 40%.
How Long Does CBD Oil Take to Take Effect?
There are several important factors that come into play when determining the time to take effect when it comes to various methods of using CBD oil. Some of these variables are related to CBD itself, and others are related to how the human body reacts to CBD.
Because of unique genetics, no two people react to CBD oil in the same way. Furthermore, factors such as age, health, weight, circulation, and metabolism can all affect the timing of the effects of CBD oil.
A factor that can be influenced by all of the above is the number of cannabinoid receptors in the body, how they are expressed and the ability of the body to produce endocannabinoids. An individual who expresses more receptors or produces fewer endocannabinoids may be more sensitive to CBD than someone with an abundance of endocannabinoids or a lack of receptors.
There are also numerous other factors involved, such as the type of product being used, how it’s being used, and how much is being used. The onset of edibles will typically take longer than that of tinctures, for example.
As we mentioned, the effects of inhaled CBD are virtually instantaneous. Edibles and capsules can range anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, while tinctures can take up to 20 minutes.
These figures are to be considered general guidelines and will vary from person to person, as we mentioned above.
CBD Oil Serving Suggestions
As with bioavailability and time to take effect, the ideal serving of CBD depends on a variety of factors including the product being used, the concentration of the CBD in the product, genetic makeup, sex, weight and so on.
Some CBD products list a suggested serving size. However, without taking into account all of the variables, the recommended serving size might be far too small or possibly even too high. In particular, the serving size will vary greatly depending on why it’s being used.
A serving that is appropriate for one product might be much different than that of a similar product. This is because various CBD oil products contain varying amounts of CBD. Whereas one product might contain 10mg of CBD per serving, another might contain 50mg per serving.
However, the most important factor to be considered is that both serving size and duration of use depend largely on the effect you are interested in when you use CBD products. One person might simply be using CBD to support general wellness, while another might be using CBD to help maintain a good night’s rest.
Another factor to be considered is whether or not the product being used contains a full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD oil with terpenes. Due to the entourage effect, these types of products reportedly work more effectively than just CBD alone.
Given all of the above-listed factors, determining your ideal serving of CBD requires some thinking. Taking too little CBD will not produce the desired effect and will be a waste of time and money. Alternatively, taking more CBD than you need may not make the benefits of CBD stronger. It will take some experimentation to determine an ideal serving of CBD for a particular person.
Here are some general guidelines for determining your ideal serving of CBD oil:
Stick With One Product
It’s a good idea to put some thought into which CBD product you’re going to use and stick with that product for a while. This allows you to gauge the effects of that particular product. If you switch back and forth between different CBD products, determining a serving amount will be much harder.
Start With a Low Serving Size
When you first begin using CBD oil, it’s a good idea to start with a low serving size. This gives you a chance to determine your body’s reaction to CBD. One option is to start with 1mg of CBD for every 20 pounds of weight. Using this rule, someone weighing 100 pounds should start with 5 milligrams of CBD, while someone weighing over 200 pounds can start with 10 milligrams of CBD, and so on.
Start Before Bedtime
When first using CBD oil, it’s best to start at night — about an hour before bedtime. That way, if CBD has a tendency to make you drowsy, you’re not dragging during the daytime. It’s uncommon for a low serving size of CBD to cause drowsiness, but it’s good to be sure.
If you have no issues, then take another serving in the morning. If CBD oil does make you sleepy, then take it at night. At the same time, CBD oil may be used to support both nighttime sleep and daytime focus, in which case CBD can be taken as needed throughout the day.
Increase Your Serving Size Slowly
If all goes well, but you have not achieved your desired benefits, you can try doubling your servings of CBD. Each time you increase your serving size, take a few days to make note of how your body feels.
If a rise in serving size of CBD produces unwanted effects such as making you drowsy, back off to a lower serving.
Can You Take Too Much CBD Oil?
CBD is non-toxic. You would have to consume quite a bit of CBD oil before it results in any truly adverse health effects.
However, taking more CBD than needed might cause some unwanted effects such as making you too relaxed for particular activities like work or sports.
Once you have arrived at a particular serving of CBD based on the product you are using, it’s a good idea to stick with that product.
Ways to Take CBD Oil
Let’s now take a look at some of the ways to take CBD oil and the pros and cons of each, in order to help you to determine which CBD products are right for you.
Some of the factors that should be considered when determining which product is ideal for you are your lifestyle, the reasons you’re using CBD oil, the time to take effect and the bioavailability of the method.
In regards to lifestyle, some CBD products are more convenient than others, some products travel better than others, and some products are simply more enjoyable to use than others. Capsules are preferred for traveling, for instance. There’s nothing to drop and break or spill.
Certain methods are better for certain uses. For example, if you’re using CBD to support skin health, you can get it directly by using a topical product.
If you’re using a CBD product to support a good night’s rest, a special formulation such as CBD Softgels with Melatonin could be more beneficial than regular CBD softgels.
As mentioned, various methods of use require different amounts of time to take effect. For example, CBD edibles can take upwards of an hour or more to take effect, whereas inhalation methods are virtually instantaneous.
Bioavailability, as we pointed out earlier, is the amount of CBD that actually makes its way into your bloodstream. If time is not a consideration, your main consideration should be value. CBD is not inexpensive, like products such as vitamins and minerals. You definitely want to try to maximize the value you get for your money.
If a CBD product has only 10% bioavailability, you’re essentially paying five times more for your CBD than if you used a product which has a 50% bioavailability.
Another consideration is how accurate you would like to be with your servings. It’s easy to gauge a serving when you’re taking capsules, for example, but much harder to gauge serving size when vaping since it depends on factors such as how much you inhale and how deeply you inhale it.
With that knowledge, let’s take a closer look at the best uses, pros and cons of individual ways of taking CBD.
CBD Oils and Tinctures
Earlier, we discussed the fact that there are a variety of products which makers refer to as CBD oil. These can include everything from raw hemp extract to more refined products to pure CBD-infused oil.
There are also a number of types of oil which are used as a base for CBD oil. Some CBD oil products also contain added ingredients such as additional terpenes, essential oils, and vitamins.
Pros and Cons of Oils and Tinctures
Tinctures are generally used at home in the morning and the evening, and can also be used at work if your situation allows it.
The downside of tinctures and oils is that they don’t travel well. They can be messy if you’re trying to use them on the go. They also generally come in a breakable bottle with a breakable dropper. If you’re looking for a product to take hiking, for example, tinctures are probably not your best choice.
CBD Oil Capsules
CBD oil capsules are generally delivered orally. There are cases where you might want to puncture a capsule for use on the skin, but for the most part, this is an orally administered product.
Capsules are made with gelatin, which melts within minutes in your stomach and delivers the entire serving of CBD oil. This means that none of it will get absorbed into the tissues in your mouth or throat. And, depending on whether or not you take them with food, very little is likely to make its way through the rest of your digestive system.
Joy Organics softgels are formulated using a patent-pending water-soluble nanoemulsion technology which encapsulates the active compounds in nano-sized emulsions. The average size of nanoemulsion CBD oil droplets is between 4 and 200 times smaller than the industry standard.
This smaller size leads to much higher absorption in the blood and, therefore, results in extremely high bioavailability. Because of this, less nanoemulsion CBD oil is needed to produce the same results as regular CBD oil.
Pros and Cons of Capsules
As we mentioned, capsules, because they dissolve quickly, will deliver a serving of CBD directly into your stomach.
Capsules are also very convenient and easy to use with no mess, and they also allow for exact serving sizes. If a CBD Softgels capsule contains 25 milligrams of CBD, assuming you’re using a reputable manufacturer with good production methods, you know you’re getting a serving of 25 milligrams of CBD.
One downside of capsules is that they take longer to feel the benefits. Also, as mentioned, when taken on an empty stomach very little of the CBD will make its way into your body as most of it will be directly absorbed into the lining of your stomach. But this is easily avoidable by taking the capsule with food.
It’s also important to note here that capsules that do not use nanoemulsions have far lower bioavailability than those that do contain nanoemulsions.
CBD-infused topicals include skin creams, balms, salves, and oils. Once again, these products can be infused with pure CBD, or they can contain a PCR CBD oil.
The same rule applies — the products with the full or broad spectrum oils will contain other beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes.
Topicals often have a variety of additional beneficial ingredients meant to contribute to the overall benefits of CBD products. For example, skin creams may contain moisturizers, vitamin E, collagen, and so on.
Pain creams may contain anti-inflammatory ingredients meant to help the product penetrate deeper into tissues and aid in pain relief. Salves may contain other soothing and healing ingredients, such as aloe.
Pros and Cons of Topicals
Topicals (such as CBD Salve) are great for use on a particular area of skin or underlying muscles and joints. They deliver the CBD and other beneficial ingredients directly where they can do the most good.
However, they take some time to apply and can be a little messy. This may not be a concern for you if you use these kinds of products regularly.
Another thing to consider is that, when taken internally either orally or inhaled, CBD will make its way to all areas of your body, including your skin. If overall skin health is your goal, you may just opt for one of those other applications rather than having to apply a topical all over your skin.
Which brings up a side note — when receiving a massage, generally, an oil is used on the entire body. This is a great opportunity to give your skin some extra love by adding some CBD oil to your massage oil.
Ultimate Guide to CBD Oil Chapter 5:
Getting Started With CBD Oil
How To Buy High-Quality CBD
The CBD market is currently expanding at a breakneck pace. Unfortunately, along with good companies, bad ones are trying to capitalize on the trend. Many of them will do anything to cut corners and increase profit margins. Some companies will use inferior and unsafe products. Some are completely dishonest, selling so-called CBD oil products that have negligible amounts of CBD in them, or even none whatsoever. Or, even worse, they could contain dangerous synthetic CBD.
CBD oil is not a product on which you should skimp on quality. You need a trusted manufacturer that makes CBD oil products that are rich in natural CBD and terpenes.
Also, a recent report by the FDA on CBD products found that many CBD products on the market do not contain the amount of CBD listed on the label.
With all these CBD oil producers flooding the market with new products, it can be difficult to know who to trust and where to find the highest quality CBD oil.
Identifying a Good Company
There are a few factors that need to be considered when searching for a company that makes high-quality CBD oil products. These include the source and variety of hemp, the method of extraction used to produce the raw hemp extract, whether or not the company uses nanoemulsion technology, and the quality of the other ingredients in the products they offer.
The good news is that a reputable company will gladly provide this information. If it’s not touted on their website, then you can use their contact form to inquire about their hemp source, extraction method, and the source of other ingredients. If a company will not provide you with this information, then simply rule them out. There are plenty of respectable, high-quality CBD oil makers out there.
Preferred Hemp Sources
Hemp is farmed all over the world. The U.S. is only recently starting to rebuild its hemp industry after a century of prohibition. However, the U.S. produces some of the finest quality cannabis and hemp products in the world.
It’s important to understand that not all hemp is created equal. Industrial hemp is primarily grown for its seeds and fibers and is not bred to produce high levels of cannabinoids and terpenes. PCR hemp, on the other hand, was specifically cultivated to be rich in cannabinoids and terpenes.
In order for a CBD product that is made from industrial hemp to contain the same concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes as CBD oil made from PCR hemp, industrial hemp CBD must be further refined, removing or destroying many of the naturally occurring beneficial compounds.
If a manufacturer specifies that their CBD was extracted from industrial hemp, then it’s safe to assume that the product is either lower in CBD and terpenes than a product made with PCR hemp, or has been further processed and has lost some of its natural essence. Finding a company whose products are made with PCR hemp is highly desirable.
The lowest quality CBD oil products are usually produced in Asian countries such as China, where quality standards are far lower. CBD oil products produced in China are often made from strains of industrial hemp which are not rich in cannabinoids and terpenes. They are often extracted using cheaper methods that are harsh and can actually destroy cannabinoids and terpenes. They may contain toxic pesticides which are illegal in the U.S. or may be contaminated with molds and other biological toxins.
Quality of Other Ingredients
Although raw and refined pure hemp extract is available, the vast majority of CBD oil products contain additional ingredients such as vegetable oils or other essential oils.
All the rules mentioned above apply here. Products produced in the U.S. are preferred. Products produced in Western Europe may also be of high quality, and products made elsewhere are quite often of lower quality.
The ingredients used can also be telling when determining whether a company is trying to cut corners. Oils such as hemp seed oil, coconut oil, and almond oil are generally healthy and of high quality. If a product contains many ingredients that you can’t pronounce or that sound like harsh chemicals, then the manufacturer is probably trying to cut corners.
For example, a product known as polyethylene glycol is often used in CBD vape oils. This is the same stuff found in your car’s radiator. Although it has been FDA approved, there is evidence that it may irritate the lungs.
One exception to the can’t pronounce rule is an oil known as MCT oil. MCT stands for medium chain triglycerides. MCT oil is a natural product made from coconut oil. Coconut oil contains both medium- and long-chain triglycerides. Triglycerides, although sounding like a type of chemical, are simply the main constituent of human body fat. Without going into a biology lesson, let it suffice to say that MCTs are easier for the body to process than raw coconut oil.
There are other exceptions to the rule. When in doubt, just do an internet search on the ingredients in question, and you’ll usually be able to determine fairly quickly whether or not a particular ingredient is safe and healthy.
Another factor to consider is third-party lab testing. Most serious manufactures will send their products out to testing labs to determine whether or not they contain any contaminants and also to measure the levels of cannabinoids in the product.
Because different strains and crops produce different levels of CBD, CBD oil can vary in potency from one batch to another. Any good manufacturers will want to know exactly how much CBD is in their products.
Another thing that’s extremely important to know is whether the product contains THC. THC use may have serious consequences, so you should know whether your CBD product contains THC and in what amounts.
Many top manufacturers will provide the lab reports for the exact batch of products being sold. If one of the makers you are considering does offer this information, give them extra points.
CBD Oil Health Claims
This is worth touching on. Many companies will put CBD products on the market and make serious health claims about their product. These claims are not supported by the levels of scientific evidence required to be FDA approved. These claims are a strong sign that a company is exaggerating what its product can do. Avoid those products.
Finding a Trusted Manufacturer
Another way to narrow down your list of CBD oil makers is simply to do some internet research on CBD companies themselves. You’ll notice that some brand names will consistently be portrayed in a good light, while others might have an overabundance of bad reviews.
There are some smaller, more obscure companies which produce very high-quality CBD but may not have much in the way of reviews. Don’t necessarily rule them out. Use the methods above to determine if they will make the cut.
As we mentioned above, products produced in areas of the world other than the U.S. or Western Europe are usually of lower quality. There are plenty of great U.S. CBD oil producers to choose from, so it’s best to stick with U.S.-made products.
A Word On the Dangers of Synthetic Cannabinoids
You may have heard on the news about some people in Utah becoming seriously ill as a result of using CBD products which contained synthetic CBD — that is CBD produced in a lab instead of in a hemp plant. We can’t stress enough how dangerous these products are. Stay away from them at all costs.
To wrap things up, let’s summarize the important points that you should take away from this document.
It’s important to have some goals before you begin using CBD oil. For example, you may not be getting enough sleep, or you may be experiencing discomfort after working out. Determine the benefits of the CBD product you’re hoping to get so that you can make a decision as to whether or not it’s working for you.
Determine Your Serving
If you’re taking CBD oil for health maintenance, you should be taking lower servings of CBD. Anything over 50 milligrams a day may be more than you need. You may only need 25 milligrams or less per day.
However, you may be using CBD for a reason other than wellness support and need a greater serving. Or you may be taking medications with which CBD will interact. There may be other considerations. You really need to discuss your decision with a qualified medical professional who is well-versed in the use of CBD in order to determine your ideal serving.
Choose a Good Company and Stick With Them
Finding the right product for you from a high-quality maker is paramount. Once you choose a trusted brand and a particular product, stick with it for a while so that you can truly gauge its effectiveness.
We hope that you’ll take a good look at Joy Organics and consider us as your preferred source for high-quality CBD oil products. We use only PCR hemp to produce our CBD oil. We use only phytocannabinoid-rich oils in our products, extracted using supercritical CO2.
Our capsules, CBD Energy Drink Mix, and dog treats are made using water-soluble hemp extract powder, which gives these products a higher bioavailability than that of standard products. We use a patented process to extract all residual THC from our products, providing a 0.0% THC product. And we add only the highest quality ingredients to our products. Finally, all of our products undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are free from any kind of contamination and have accurate CBD levels.
Please explore the website at JoyOrganics.com or stop by one of our two retail shops located in Austin, Texas or Wichita, Kansas.
How Long Have People Used Cannabis?
The Pen Ts’ao Ching mentions Chinese Emperor Shen-Nung using cannabis in ointments and teas. This literary work was documented in 2737 B.C. It’s recorded that cannabis came to America in the 1600s and was used as a form of currency by some of the early colony settlements.
What Is CBD Oil?
CBD is one of 100+ hemp-based compounds known as phytocannabinoids. These compounds are extracted from hemp and used in a variety of products. Popular CBD oil products include tinctures, gummies, and topicals.
How Does CBD Oil Work?
Phytocannabinoids interact with receptors connected to our endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system helps maintain homeostasis (balance) throughout the body. Millions use CBD oil every day to support joints, skin health, and mood!
What Are the Benefits of CBD Oil?
The endocannabinoid system influences many vital human functions, making CBD oil a versatile addition to anyone’s wellness plan. Potential benefits of CBD oil include maintaining heart health, promoting a balanced mood, post-exercise recovery, and more!
Will CBD Oil Get Me High?
CBD is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid. THC is the phytocannabinoid in cannabis responsible for causing a high. Agriculture hemp contains 0.3% THC or less. Therefore, CBD oil shouldn’t cause a high.
What Is the Strongest CBD Oil?
Pure CBD is known as CBD isolate. While CBD is beneficial on its own, it works better with other phytocannabinoids in the formula. This synergistic benefit is known as the entourage effect.
Each phytocannabinoid plays a unique role in maintaining homeostasis. Therefore a full spectrum of phytocannabinoids will promote entourage effect benefits.
Full spectrum CBD oil contains 0.3% THC or less. While it shouldn’t promote a high, some are still uncomfortable with the presence of THC.
Broad spectrum CBD oil removes THC from the formula but still has other phytocannabinoids that promote the entourage effect.
How Much CBD Oil Should I Use?
CBD oil servings are dependent on a person’s weight, metabolism, and tolerance to CBD. Everyone has a different sensitivity to phytocannabinoids. So, it’s best to start with a low serving size and work your way up to an adequate serving that meets your particular needs.
How Do You Absorb CBD Oil Quicker?
CBD tinctures are the most efficient way to absorb CBD quicker. Edibles and softgels must go through the digestive system. Tinctures are absorbed in the mouth so that you can feel effects as early as 15-30 minutes.
At Joy Organics, we use nanoemulsion technology to extract our phytocannabinoids. This cutting-edge technology allows us to formulate the cannabis market’s smallest CBD particles, which improves the overall bioavailability of our phytocannabinoids.
How to Choose High-Quality CBD Oil
You don’t want anything grown with pesticides or contaminated with heavy metals. Make sure all products are third-party tested for purity. Reputable brands make lab reports easy to find for consumers.
Also, read the labels. Check that any other ingredient they use is organic. Artificial ingredients can dilute the potency of your CBD oil.
Which CBD Product Is Right for Me?
One of the most popular ways to use CBD oil is with CBD tinctures. They’re fast-acting, versatile and taste great. Speaking of things that taste great, so do CBD gummies!
CBD softgels are also excellent for those new to CBD oil, as they are a more familiar method to many. At Joy Organics, we have formulas targeted for regulating sleep patterns by infusing our CBD oil with melatonin. We also have a heart and joint support formula that includes CBD oil with curcumin. Softgels and gummies both deliver precise serving sizes.
Meanwhile, CBD topicals are excellent for those who have skin or joint-related issues. Our skin has receptors that interact with the endocannabinoid system. These products allow for targeted care.
The WHO marks CBD as safe and well-tolerated, with many health benefits. Those interested in WHO CBD research and information, read more in the official report.
Thanks for reading! To show how much we appreciate you, we’re going to give you 16% off your next order. Just use code READER16 at checkout!
Hannah Smith is Joy Organics Director of Communications. She is driven by her passion for providing clear and accessible wellness and CBD education. In 2015, she received her BA in Media, Culture and the Arts from The King’s College in New York City and before Joy Organics, worked as writer and photographer in the Middle East and North Africa. Her work has been featured on Forbes, Vice, Vox, Denver Post, and the Coloradoan.
Best CBD Oil Tinctures, Drops
Taking CBD oil, tinctures, and CBD drops is an easy and convenient way to follow a CBD regimen to promote a much more balanced sense of self. CBD tinctures would be beneficial if you want your entire body to reap the benefits of daily CBD.
- (302) (107) (175)
- (130) (11) (15) (11) (6)
- (45) (37) (14) (17) (5) (7) (7) (7) (23) (4)
- (33) (10) (5) (1) (4)
- (37) (13) (14) (2)
- (27) (20) (23) (3)
- (18) (6) (25) (16) (23) (7) (10) (24) (20) (13) (13) (27) (8) (9) (16) (4) (11) (12) (16) (4) (3) (2) (1) (1) (4) (5) (3) (1)
- + More
- (176) (100) (24)
CBD per container
- 300 (13)
- 500 (27)
- 750 (24) (46)
- 1500 (38)
- 2000 (22)
- 3000 (27)
- 4000 (7)
- 4500 (3)
- 5000 (7)
- 6000 (13)
- (64) (14) (42) (21) (22) (6)
- Athletes (18)
- Seniors (40)
- Beginners (54)
- Regular Users (82)
- Vitamins (18)
- Terpenes (67)
- Lemon Balm (2)
- Ashwagandha (2)
- Chamomile (2)
- Elderberry (3)
- CBDV (16)
- Chaga (3)
- Cordyceps (3)
- Curcumin (5)
- Ginger (1)
- Lion’s Mane (3)
- Maitake (3)
- Reishi (3)
- Rhodiola (2)
- Turkey Tail (3)
- Turmeric (1)
- Vegetable Glycerin (7)
- Vitamin D2 (1)
Top Selling CBD Oils
Joy Organics, Organic CBD Tincture, Full Spectrum, 1oz, 450mg CBD
What are CBD Oils?
CBD oil supplements come in a variety of forms. Two of the most common are CBD oils and CBD tinctures.
CBD oil contains cannabinoids as well as other natural ingredients, which include protein, fatty acids, terpenes, essential vitamins, and nutrients. Cannabidiol (CBD) is then mixed with a base oil or carrier oil, which is responsible for the dilution of the CBD. These other oils make it so that your body can absorb CBD into your system. Some of the oils that are added to the CBD include coconut oil, MCT oil, hemp seed oil, or a vegetable glycerin base.
What are CBD Tinctures?
CBD tincture is created by placing all of the hemp’s organic matter in an alcohol or water solution to soak. The goal is to get rid of the bitter taste that the hemp plant can have. Some manufacturers might add flavors to their tinctures to make them taste even better.
Taking CBD oil by way of an oral tincture drop or a liquid form is one of the easiest methods of application that offer quick results (CBD tincture bioavailability is nearly 12-35%). You usually hold one of these liquid drops under your tongue at the administered dosage for about thirty seconds. This provides a quick absorption of some of the products. You then swallow the rest of the product. Your digestive system will process the product and more will be absorbed by your body. The onset time of CBD oils is between 30 minutes to 3 hours with the effects lasting up to 4 hours.
How to Take CBD Oil?
The most common method of taking CBD oil tinctures is by mouth. Most products come in a drop form. You should start with low doses and work upwards from there. Take one dose for three weeks before you decide to increase the amount or frequency.
CBD Oil: An Introduction
Medical patients swear by it. Researchers are intrigued by it. Government regulators are flustered by it. And investors are head over heels for it.
Medical patients swear by it. Researchers are intrigued by it. Government regulators are flustered by it. And investors are head over heels for it. CBD oil is the It-Medicine of the moment. A few years ago, hardly anyone knew about CBD oil. Today there’s a huge demand for it. Millions of people are taking CBD oil as a health supplement. But what exactly is it? Where does it come from? How is it made? And what should you know before you buy it?
Where Does CBD Oil Come From?
Cannabidiol ( CBD ) is one of more than 100 unique “cannabinoid” compounds that are found in the oily resin of the cannabis plant. The sticky, gooey resin is concentrated on the dense clusters of cannabis flowers, commonly called “buds,” which are covered by tiny, mushroom-shaped “trichomes.” This is where the magic happens.
Trichomes are specialized glandular structures that contain a treasure trove of oily, medicinal compounds, including CBD , tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ), and various aromatic terpenes. Why does cannabis create these oily compounds? What does the resin do for the plant?
The oily trichomes protect the plant from heat and ultraviolet radiation. The oil also has antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal properties that deter predators. The stickiness of the resin provides another defensive layer by trapping bugs.
As it happens, the same oily resin that protects the health of the plant includes components that are beneficial for human health. CBD , a non-intoxicating compound, has shown promise in treating and managing the symptoms of a broad range of diseases. Ditto for THC , CBD ’s intoxicating cousin.
CBD oil is extracted from the resinous trichomes of cannabis plants. There are many different cannabis “strains” or varietals. The amount of CBD present in the trichomes will depend on the particular variety of cannabis or hemp. Low resin industrial hemp, which is legally defined as cannabis with less than 0.3 percent THC by dry weight, has fewer trichomes – and therefore less oil – than high-resin cannabis varietals.
But most high resin cannabis strains these days are THC -dominant with little CBD . So choosing the appropriate CBD -rich cannabis chemovar, a variety of cannabis defined by its chemical constituents, is key for extracting CBD oil.
Trichomes are fragile structures that easily break off of the cannabis flower. Even rough handling is enough to shake off the trichomes. Making hashish or “kif” (hashish powder) involves manually removing the resinous trichomes by agitating the flower. Sometimes heat or pressure is applied to partially melt the trichomes together, turning the resin into a congealed slab, referred to as rosin, which can be smoked or ingested.
In addition to the resinous trichomes concentrated on the flowers and to a lesser extent on the leaves of the cannabis plant, there are the tiny sessile trichomes, which dot the stalk, but these contain hardly any oil or CBD . (Shaped like tiny inverted commas, non-glandular hairs without oil also cover the plant’s surface.) CBD is also absent in the roots or the seeds of cannabis and hemp. Companies that claim they derive CBD from hemp stalk or hemp seeds are making false claims.
How Is CBD Oil Made?
To make CBD oil, one must start with CBD -rich plant material. There are several ways to extract CBD oil from cannabis. Each method has its pros and cons. Some are safer and more effective than others.
After it is extracted from the plant and the solvent is removed, the CBD oil may be refined and formulated into a variety of consumable products – edibles, tinctures, gel caps, vape oil cartridges, topicals, beverages, and more.
The purpose of an extraction is to make CBD and other beneficial components of the plant (such as terpenes) available in a highly concentrated form. Because cannabinoids are oily by nature, separating CBD from the plant material will produce a thick, potent oil. The texture and purity of the oil depends largely on the method used to extract it.
CBD and the other plant cannabinoids are chemically classified as “terpenophenolic” compounds. To the non-scientists among us, this means that CBD is soluble in both oil and alcohol. Thus, the process of extracting CBD oil from cannabis often entails the use of a solvent that’s good at dissolving an oil or an alcohol-based compound. Solvents that are commonly used to extract CBD from cannabis include supercritical CO2 , ethanol, hydrocarbons (such as butane) and olive oil.
CO2 Extraction of CBD Oil
CO2 extraction is the most prevalent commercial method – as well as one of the safest ways – of separating CBD and other cannabinoids from cannabis biomass. At room temperature, carbon dioxide is a gas. But under high pressure and fluctuating temperature, CO2 liquifies while still maintaining the fluid dynamics of a gas. In this “supercritical” state, CO2 acts like a solvent, which flushes out the active ingredients from the plant matter.
This method is very effective because each compound can only be extracted by CO2 under specific conditions. Slight changes in temperature or pressure in a supercritical state allows for fine-tuning the extraction of CBD and other desirable plant components.
As the pressure drops, a crude, waxy, CBD -rich substance, golden in color, separates from the gas and deposits into a collection vessel. Afterwards, the golden oil undergoes a process known as “winterization,” which purifies and refines the extract to increase its quality and value. The plant waxes, which are not appropriate to include in certain kinds of products, are filtered out, resulting in a safe, clean, CBD -rich oil that is free of chlorophyll.
Supercritical CO2 extraction requires expensive equipment and a steep operational learning curve. But unlike combustible solvents, such as ethanol or butane, CO2 poses no danger of fire or explosion.
Ethanol Extraction of CBD Oil
The use of ethanol to extract medicinal compounds from cannabis and other plants has been a common practice in many cultures for centuries. In 1854, the U.S. Pharmacopeia recommended ethanol-based tinctures of “Indian hemp” to treat numerous ailments, including neuralgia, depression, hemorrhage, pain and muscle spasm.
These odiferous tinctures were a standard part of American health care prior to the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, which prohibited all forms of cannabis consumption. But homemade cannabis tinctures persisted as an underground folk medicine, particularly in marginalized Latino communities, despite federal law.
In recent years, ethanol has re-emerged as a popular means of extracting cannabis oil, in general, and CBD oil, in particular. Whereas a tincture made from a cannabis extract could be equal in potency to the original flower, a concentrated version of the same tincture will be much more potent. Today, food-grade grain alcohol is a widely used solvent for creating very potent, high-quality CBD -rich oil, which is suitable for oral ingestion.
Ethanol extracts available in medical cannabis dispensaries are typically referred to as Rick Simpson Oil (aka RSO ) or Full-Extract Cannabis Oil ( FECO ). In order to make RSO or FECO , cannabis flower is soaked in ethanol, agitated, and strained; then the residual oil is gently heated until all that remains is a viscous, highly concentrated goo infused with cannabinoids, which can be difficult to dose accurately, given how thick it is.
Often sold in plastic, needleless syringes to make dosing and administration a little easier, RSO should contain the full spectrum of cannabinoids extracted from the plant. This means that a small amount THC will also be present in a CBD -rich ethanol extraction. Consumers are cautioned not to ingest a dose larger than a small grain of rice. With this type of cannabis oil, in particular, it’s always best to start low and go slow.
Hydrocarbon Extraction of CBD Oil
Using hydrocarbon solvents – such as butane, hexane and propane or mixtures thereof – to extract CBD from cannabis has major advantages as well as distinct disadvantages compared to other methods of manufacturing CBD oil. When properly implemented, this extraction technique is a very effective at separating cannabinoids and terpenes from unwanted cannabis components (e.g., chlorophyll), while preserving the unique scent and significant therapeutic attributes of the plant.
Potent cannabis concentrates made with hydrocarbons may resemble tree sap, ear wax, or brittle candy in texture. The product known as “shatter” (so named because of its glass-like appearance and the manner in which it breaks) is consumed via inhalation by using a “dab rig” or a high temperature vaporizer.
But butane and other hydrocarbons are highly flammable, neurotoxic solvents. If these solvents aren’t fully purged from the CBD oil extract, their consumption can be harmful – especially for someone with a compromised immune system. In addition to leaving toxic residues in the oil, unsafe manufacturing processes involving hydrocarbons have been known to cause deadly explosions.
Making Your Own CBD Oil
Project CBD strongly discourages home extraction using flammable solvents. There are much safer options for making a CBD oil extract in one’s own kitchen.
A 2013 study by Luigi L. Romano and Arno Hazekamp evaluated the efficacy and purity of five cannabis extraction solvents, including ethanol, naphtha (a harsh industrial poison that should be avoided), and olive oil. The authors found comparable efficiency between all the solvents but noted that olive oil, a nontoxic solvent, was better at extracting terpenes along with the cannabinoids. Moreover, according to Hazekamp, “You won’t blow yourself up making cannabis-infused olive oil.”
Olive oil extraction is safe, simple and straightforward. It’s also inexpensive. And you can do it yourself. Heating the plant matter in an oven will decarboxylate the cannabinoids, turning THCA into THC and CBDA into CBD . Steep the flower and leaves in the olive oil; then sift, strain, and separate the oil from what’s left of the herb. Cannabis-infused olive oil — whether CBD -rich or THC -dominant — is perishable and should be stored in a cool, dark place so it doesn’t turn rancid.
One can also extract CBD from cannabis by using other lipid solvents, including avocado, coconut or MCT [medium chain triglyceride] oil. Hemp seed oil is another effective extraction solvent and a carrier vehicle that mixes well with CBD .
But be forewarned about CBD product companies that claim they get their CBD from hemp seeds. While hemp seeds are an excellent source of protein-rich, omega 3 fatty acids, the seeds themselves don’t contain CBD , THC or any other cannabinoids. Trace amounts of cannabinoids may be present in oil pressed from hemp seeds if the seed covering, the bract (where resin can cling), isn’t thoroughly rinsed and removed prior to the extraction process.
Unregulated CBD Oil Products
To reiterate: CBD oil in not the same as “hemp oil” or “hemp seed oil.” Some companies are manufacturing inferior products by spiking hemp seed oil with a CBD isolate. Such products lack the synergistic array of beneficial components found in full-spectrum CBD -rich oil.
Unfortunately, there is little oversight for manufacturing hemp-derived CBD products, which can lead to confusion and deception. Many hemp-derived products are mislabeled as to CBD and THC content. And poorly processed CBD oil may be contaminated with dangerous solvent and pesticide residues, thinning agents, corn syrup, artificial flavors and colors, and other toxins.
If possible, it’s better to obtain CBD oil products from licensed dispensaries in states that have legalized cannabis for therapeutic or personal use. These states are likely to have stricter safety standards for CBD oil products than states or countries that refuse to regulate the booming CBD industry. Read the ingredients carefully before purchasing a CBD oil product, and look for evidence of laboratory tests and verification of CBD concentrations when buying a CBD remedy or supplement.
Zoe Sigman is Project CBD ’s Program Director and the Science Editor at Broccoli Magazine.
Copyright, Project CBD . May not be reprinted without permission.