All analyses were conducted in SPSS version 24 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY). Valid percentages are reported rather than absolute values for descriptive statistics to account for missing data. We only report data on those reporting using CBD themselves equivalent to 90% of the respondents (e.g., not for veterinary use, not those who had not tried it, and those reporting on behalf of other users). An analysis of non-responders can be found in supplementary materials. We conducted logistic regression models to investigate associations between sex (males [reference category] and females), age (recoded to < 34 years old [reference category], between 35 and 54 years old, and 55+) and location (UK [reference category], other). For CBD use patterns, we used separate models to compare those who did and did not report their primary use of CBD for self-perceived anxiety, stress, and sleep whilst controlling for sex, age, and location. We dummy-coded “time of day” as each category versus all others. We report adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and p values with a defined cut-off of 0.05.
In adjusted logistic models, more males (47.4%) were using CBD for general health and wellbeing than females (30.7%; aOR 0.464, [95% CI 0.30–0.72], p = 0.001). More females were using CBD for self-perceived anxiety (47.9%) than males (34.2%; aOR 1.595, [95% CI 1.021, 2.49], p = 0.04), and for self-perceived insomnia (females 28.6%, males 17.8%; aOR 1.871, [95% CI 1.125–3.112], p = 0.015). More males (14.1%) than females (7.1%) were using CBD for post-workout sore muscles (aOR 0.462, [95% CI 0.236–0.905], p = 0.024).
A total of 388 responses were made, of whom 277/388 (71%) were logged as not experiencing any side-effects. Dry mouth was experienced by 44/388 (11%), and 13/288 (3%) experienced fatigue. All other side-effects were reported less than 2% (e.g. dizziness, nausea, upset stomach, rapid heartbeat, diarrhoea, headache, anxiety, psychotic symptoms, sexual problems, trouble concentrating). No respondents reported vomiting, fainting, liver problems (raised liver enzymes in blood test), or seizures. Adjusted logistic models show no associations of age, of sex with “no side effects” or fatigue. Location of the participants was associated with dry mouth, those who lived outside of the UK had greater odds of experiencing dry mouth (aOR 2.44, [95% CI 1.25–4.75], p = 0.009). No other side-effects were analysed due to the small number of respondents citing other side-effects.
The regulatory confusion, along with recent media hype, has made it hard for most people to understand the true nature of CBD. Being classified as both a medicine and a supplement in some forms, whilst an illegal substance in others leads to consumer and patient confusion and potential frustration. Therefore, this study aimed to understand users’ consumption patterns regarding dose, route of administration, and reasons for using CBD. We hypothesised that out of all reasons for using CBD, the top three would be anxiety, sleep disturbances, and stress.
Route of administration did not vary by sex. There were lower odds of those aged 55+ of vaping CBD (aOR 0.176, [95% CI 0.04–0.80], p = 0.025) as well as lower odds of those aged 35–55 (aOR 0.245, [95% CI 0.10–0.59], p = 0.002) and 55+ (aOR 0.115, [95% CI 0.025–0.520], p = 0.005) in comparison to 18–34 years old for drinking CBD. Self-reported anxiety (aOR 1.78, [95% CI 1.08–2.92], p = 0.023) and those using CBD for sleep improvement (aOR 1.945, [95% CI 1.152–3.285], p = 0.013) were associated with the sublingual route. Stress was not associated with route of administration.
Unfortunately, the indicated CBD content on a product label is not necessarily the amount that the product actually contains, which may lead people to take more or less CBD than intended. One analysis of 84 CBD products sold online showed that 26% of the products contained less CBD than the label said. The same analysis showed nearly 43% of the products were underlabled, meaning they contained substantially more CBD than the label said.
Unfortunately, falling asleep or staying asleep can be difficult for certain types of sleepers. As many as 70% of Americans report not sleeping the recommended hours, and nearly one-third of American workers sleep less than six hours per night. Solutions for better sleep and avoiding sleep debt vary. Possible approaches include improved sleep hygiene, prescription sleep aids, and natural sleep aids.
What Are Common Doses of CBD?
Cannabis plants and derivatives that contain less than 0.3% THC are classified as “hemp.” As of 2018, hemp is no longer defined as a controlled substance by the U.S. federal government. As a result, there has been an influx of hemp-related products in the American market. These products are generally marketed as CBD products.
A good night’s sleep is essential to your overall health and wellbeing. Experts recommend adults sleep seven to nine hours each night. Proper sleep ensures you feel well-rested and have energy for the next day. A good night’s rest also contributes to memory formation, helps grow and repair muscle and tissue, and prevents sickness.
Research on the effects CBD has on sleep disorders is still preliminary. Some people who use CBD for chronic pain report sleeping better. Currently, it is unclear whether these patients sleep better because of the pain relief or because CBD directly affects their sleep.
To determine whether CBD helps improve sleep and/or anxiety in a clinical population.
CBD has demonstrated preliminary efficacy for a range of physical and mental health care problems. In the decade before 2012, there were only 9 published studies on the use of cannabinoids for medicinal treatment of pain; since then, 30 articles have been published on this topic, according to a PubMed search conducted in December 2017. Most notable was a study conducted at the University of California, San Diego’s Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research that showed cannabis cigarettes reduced pain by 34% to 40% compared with placebo (17% to 20% decrease in pain).8 In particular, CBD appears to hold benefits for a wide range of neurologic disorders, including decreasing major seizures. A recent large, well-controlled study of pediatric epilepsy documented a beneficial effect of CBD in reducing seizure frequency by more than 50%.9 In addition to endorphin release, the “runner’s high” experience after exercise has been shown to be induced in part by anandamide acting on CB1 receptors, eliciting anxiolytic effects on the body.10 The activity of CBD at 5-HT1A receptors may drive its neuroprotective, antidepressive, and anxiolytic benefits, although the mechanism of action by which CBD decreases anxiety is still unclear.11 CBD was shown to be helpful for decreasing anxiety through a simulated public speaking test at doses of 300 mg to 600 mg in single-dose studies.12–14 Other studies suggest lower doses of 10 mg/kg having a more anxiolytic effect than higher doses of 100 mg/kg in rats.15 A crossover study comparing CBD with nitrazepam found that high-dose CBD at 160 mg increased the duration of sleep.16 Another crossover study showed that plasma cortisol levels decreased more significantly when given oral CBD, 300 to 600 mg, but these patients experienced a sedative effect.17 The higher doses of CBD that studies suggest are therapeutic for anxiety, insomnia, and epilepsy may also increase mental sedation.16 Administration of CBD via different routes and long-term use of 10 mg/d to 400 mg/d did not create a toxic effect on patients. Doses up to 1500 mg/d have been well tolerated in the literature.18 Most of the research done has been in animal models and has shown potential benefit, but clinical data from randomized controlled experiments remain limited.
The average age for patients with anxiety was 34 years (range = 18–70 years) and age 36.5 years for patients with sleep disorders (range = 18–72 years). Most patients with an anxiety diagnosis were men (59.6%, 28/47), whereas more sleep-disordered patients were women (64.0%, 16/25). All 72 patients completed sleep and anxiety assessments at the onset of CBD treatment and at the first monthly follow-up. By the second monthly follow-up, 41 patients (56.9%) remained on CBD treatment and completed assessments; 27 patients (37.5%) remained on CBD treatment at the third monthly assessment.
Nearly all patients were given CBD 25 mg/d in capsule form. If anxiety complaints predominated, the dosing was every morning, after breakfast. If sleep complaints predominated, the dosing was every evening, after dinner. A handful of patients were given CBD 50 mg/d or 75 mg/d. One patient with a trauma history and schizoaffective disorder received a CBD dosage that was gradually increased to 175 mg/d.
Finally, the most notable benefit of cannabis as a form of treatment is safety. There have been no reports of lethal overdose with either of the cannabinoids and, outside of concerns over abuse, major complications are very limited.19 Current research indicates that cannabis has a low overall risk with short-term use, but more research is needed to clarify possible long-term risks and harms.