The sample (N = 387) consisted of 61.2% females, mostly between 25 and 54 years old (72.2%) and primarily based in the UK (77.4%). The top 4 reasons for using CBD were self-perceived anxiety (42.6%), sleep problems (42.5%), stress (37%), and general health and wellbeing (37%). Fifty-four per cent reported using less than 50 mg CBD daily, and 72.6% used CBD sublingually. Adjusted logistic models show females had lower odds than males of using CBD for general health and wellbeing [OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.30–0.72] and post-workout muscle-soreness [OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24–0.91] but had higher odds of using CBD for self-perceived anxiety [OR 1.60, 95% CI 0.02–2.49] and insomnia [OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.13–3.11]. Older individuals had lower odds of using CBD for general health and wellbeing, stress, post-workout sore muscles, anxiety, skin conditions, focusing, and sleep but had higher odds of using CBD for pain. Respondents reported that CBD use was effective for stress, sleep problems, and anxiety in those who used the drug for those conditions.
We found age and sex differences in the reason for CBD use. Most of the sample was female, but males had greater odds of using CBD for general health and wellbeing and post-workout for sore muscles. In contrast, females were more likely to use CBD for self-perceived anxiety and insomnia, reflecting the higher prevalence of both symptoms amongst women (McLean et al. 2011; Li et al. 2002). We also found more females using CBD for fibromyalgia, possibly reflecting the much higher prevalence of fibromyalgia amongst women (Yunus 2002). A recent study compared the subjective effects of 100 mg oral versus vaporised and smoked CBD and found that women reported experiencing more subjective effects of CBD than men (Spindle et al. 2020), which may reflect why women were using CBD for more chronic symptomology. There were also significant age differences, with more people under 34 years old using CBD for general health and wellbeing than older age groups, which might be explained in part by the fact that disease burden generally increases with age. More young people use CBD to reduce self-perceived stress and anxiety, aligning with studies finding young people are more troubled by symptoms of anxiety than older people (Brenes et al. 2008).
This study aimed to investigate CBD use patterns in the general population regarding the route of administration, dose, and indications for use. We found that the main indications for using CBD were self-perceived anxiety, stress, general health and wellbeing, sleep, and pain.
42.6% endorsed using CBD for self-perceived anxiety, followed by 37.5% for stress, 37% for general health and wellbeing, and 37% for improving sleep (see Fig. 1). 24.6% reported use for self-perceived insomnia. Overall, 42.5% of respondents said they were using CBD for some sleep issue, either to improve sleep or for self-perceived insomnia. In the supplementary materials (see Table 2), we show reasons for use broken down by sex, age, and location.
CBD has not demonstrated any potential for abuse or dependency and is considered well tolerated with a good safety profile, according to a report released by the World Health Organization (WHO) (Geneva CANNABIDIOL (CBD) n.d.). Since January 2019, the European Union (EU) has classified CBD as a novel food, implying that before 1997, consumption was insignificant. Each country has implemented the regulation of CBD differently. In the UK, The Food Standards Agency (FSA) recommends limiting the daily dose of CBD to 70 mg (Cannabidiol (CBD) n.d.). However, researchers have used doses up to 1200 mg without serious side-effects (Davies and Bhattacharyya 2019). Conversely, few clinical trials involving children with treatment-resistant epilepsy who received either 10 or 20 mg/kg of CBD (Epidiolex) for 12 weeks recorded side-effects, such as a reversible rise in liver enzymes (Devinsky et al. 2018a; Thiele et al. 2018).
CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a "high." According to a report from the World Health Organization, "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD."
CBD has been touted for a wide variety of health issues, but the strongest scientific evidence is for its effectiveness in treating some of the cruelest childhood epilepsy syndromes, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically don’t respond to antiseizure medications. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and, in some cases, it was able to stop them altogether. Videos of the effects of CBD on these children and their seizures are readily available on the Internet for viewing, and they are quite striking. Recently the FDA approved the first ever cannabis-derived medicine for these conditions, Epidiolex, which contains CBD.
Is cannabidiol legal?
CBD is readily obtainable in most parts of the United States, though its exact legal status is in flux. All 50 states have laws legalizing CBD with varying degrees of restriction, and while the federal government still considers CBD in the same class as marijuana, it doesn’t habitually enforce against it. In December 2015, the FDA eased the regulatory requirements to allow researchers to conduct CBD trials. Currently, many people obtain CBD online without a medical cannabis license. The government’s position on CBD is confusing, and depends in part on whether the CBD comes from hemp or marijuana. The legality of CBD is expected to change, as there is currently bipartisan consensus in Congress to make the hemp crop legal which would, for all intents and purposes, make CBD difficult to prohibit.
CBD is commonly used to address anxiety, and for patients who suffer through the misery of insomnia, studies suggest that CBD may help with both falling asleep and staying asleep.
CBD may offer an option for treating different types of chronic pain. A study from the European Journal of Pain showed, using an animal model, CBD applied on the skin could help lower pain and inflammation due to arthritis. Another study demonstrated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, two of the most difficult types of chronic pain to treat. More study in humans is needed in this area to substantiate the claims of CBD proponents about pain control.
CBD might not be as potent as many prescription antipsychotic drugs, but it certainly has fewer side effects and is more cost effective compared to other medications with similar efficacy.
More recent clinical studies conducted on human subjects support the above findings. Cannabidiol has been proven to regulate vomiting and alleviate nausea-like symptoms in a wide range of health conditions. On top of that, scientists also confirmed that CBD can help reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients.
Research on Cannabidiol for Arthritis
Cannabidiol holds great potential for treating a wide range of mental disorders, but anxiety is where CBD excels.
The first trials investigating the antiemetic properties of CBD were conducted on animals, mostly on rats and shrews. Researchers discovered that CBD was indeed able to suppress nausea and vomiting in those models.
CBD can be an effective mild-to-moderately strong painkiller, as research suggests. Doctors are prescribing cannabidiol as an analgesic for patients with chronic pain, neuropathic pains, migraines, and more.