Patients struggling to recover from difficult complications with pneumonia may be surprised to learn some are using medical marijuana to aid in recovery. Your access to this site has been limited by the site owner If you think you have been blocked in error, contact the owner of this site for assistance. If you are a WordPress user with Researchers are recommending more research into how cannabis-derived CBD might help treat dangerous lung inflammation from the novel coronavirus. The authors detailed the evidence for how cannabis’ anti-inflammatory powers may help in this month’s issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.
Can Medical Marijuana Help Patients Recover from Pneumonia?
Treating pneumonia with medical marijuana is complicated. Not only can the effects of it vary depending on the type of pneumonia you have, but it is also known to cause pneumonia in people who are long-term marijuana smokers. Cannabis smoke does not appear to increase the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer . However, it is associated with symptoms of chronic bronchitis ( 8 ).
According to a 2015 expert panel review of the literature “It is unclear whether cannabis is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. Some case series and studies in immunocompromised patients have noted a link, but no definitive studies have been done. Some effects of smoked cannabis could predispose to pneumonia ( 8 ).”
The use of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) suppresses macrophages, a type of immune cell, and their functionality in alveoli which are little air sacs that connect to the bronchioles and bronchi (where air enters the lungs) (8). Alveoli are important because it’s the portion of the lung where your blood cells exchange carbon dioxide for fresh oxygen. THC also causes the ciliated, or hair-like bronchial tissues to be replaced by hyperplastic mucus-secreting bronchial cells. This is related to increased phlegm and the cough smokers develop.
Cannabis begins its influence on the body through the activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is made up of fat-based neurotransmitters that the body self produces. Through the activation of cannabinoid receptors in the body, the cannabinoids found in cannabis, such as THC and cannabidiol (CBD) , can increase or decrease neurotransmitters in the body, allowing for immune modulation, pain reduction, and other physiological effects.
An evidence brief from the Michael G. DeGroote Centre for Medicinal Cannabis Research on the lungs and cannabis notes that THC activates the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), which binds to CB1 receptors in the lungs, causing the bronchial muscles, or upper lung to relax (17). This can help open up the airways into the lungs, but if THC is ingested and the airways are already relaxed, patients may experience bronchospasms which restrict the airways. It is thought that acute use helps relax the bronchial muscles, but long-term cannabis use actually constricts the lungs’ ability to take in air.
For more information on how the endocannabinoid system works, please see our page on endocannabinoids here .
Cannabis Use and Pneumonia
Using medical cannabis while you have pneumonia can have different effects depending on a variety of factors. If you are a long-term cigarette or cannabis smoker, despite the evidence above about how cannabis can help open airways, it most likely will cause you to have a harder time breathing while you have pneumonia.
Marijuana smoking or cigarette smoking can cause you to experience the following: increased coughing, increased mucus production, possible allergy to any contaminants, and increased risk for infection (23).
It is important to note that research supports that these issues can improve after smoking has stopped, so these changes are not necessarily permanent unless you are suffering from chronic lung disease or other cardiopulmonary complications (8 ). If you continue to suffer from the above symptoms after quitting and it has been several months, please reach out to your health care provider to determine why you are having continued shortness of breath or other breathing issues.
Vaping and edibles offer more efficient and less irritating methods of delivery while avoiding potentially hazardous free radicals and carbon monoxide from combustion. In general, inhalational methods are best avoided in patients with pneumonia or lung issues (8).
In general, medical marijuana has the following positive health effects:
- Temporarily increase bronchodilation (17)
- Reduce chronic pain
- Reduce inflammation
- Temporarily increases lung capacity
Treating Pneumonia with Medical Cannabis
Treating pneumonia with medical cannabis is not recommended by smoking or inhaling it because it can irritate the lungs, throat, and airways, and actually increase your risk for developing pneumonia over time (17). Smoking cannabis, like tobacco smoke, increases your risk of damage to your lungs over time. It can also increase your body’s risk of health problems and infections such as pneumonia through its ability to modulate your immune system.
Through modulating your immune system, cannabis helps decrease chronic pain and inflammation by slowing down immune cell responses in B/T lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as altering the presence of cytokines (17). This may be great for people who have chronic inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune diseases and arthritis to slow the body’s attack on healthy tissue, but it can increase your risk for infection.
Smoking and Pneumonia: Notes to Consider
It is important to note that cannabis can sometimes contain bacteria and fungus that may also increase your risk of infection when inhaling cannabis, particularly if you have another chronic condition that lowers your immune system’s ability to fight off infections or are taking immunity-modifying medications (17).
It is also unlikely, but possible, to be allergic to any contaminants like Aspergillus and Penicillium mold present on contaminated cannabis (17)(8). This is also noteworthy for persons with predisposing asthma or cystic fibrosis . All the more reason for everyone to double-check the lab quality of your cannabis before purchasing or consuming it.
Understanding the Different Types of Pneumonia
There are four main types of pneumonia; they are grouped by what is causing the infection. Healthcare providers may also further divide pneumonia into two groups: community-acquired vs healthcare-associated pneumonia, depending on the probable source of infection (2). This helps providers determine appropriate management and treatment per guidelines from the Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and other professional societies (4 ) . There are also many subtypes of each of the four main kinds that include new diagnoses like pneumonia caused by COVID-19 infection.
The four main types include:
Bacterial pneumonia can be caused by a variety of different types of bacteria. It usually happens when the body has been weakened by illness, poor nutrition, or an impaired immune system. It is typically caused by pneumococci bacteria that are also responsible for ear infections, sinus infections, sepsis , and meningitis ( 24). You may also have an increased risk of pneumonia if you abuse alcohol or smoke cigarettes or cannabis (18). Certain medical conditions, immune-reducing medications, and even surgery can also increase the risk of bacterial or other pneumonia.
Viral types of pneumonia are caused by viruses as opposed to bacteria. Influenza causes about one-third of viral pneumonia infections (18). If you suspect you have viral pneumonia, it is important to rest and take care of yourself because it can develop into bacterial pneumonia.
Breathing, pain, or any issues that worsen or fail to improve should be medically evaluated to rule out other potentially serious conditions. This is especially important in a COVID-19 world, and also emphasizes the need for vaccinations.
There are now safe and effective vaccinations for COVID-19 readily available in the US that prevent COVID pneumonia, hospitalization, and severe disease (9). Additionally, there are existing vaccines recommended by the CDC to prevent bacterial pneumonia in children under 2 and persons over 65 (5). Antibiotics are not recommended for viral pneumonia, only bacterial ones. Speak to your provider if you have any health concerns or questions about vaccines.
Also known as “walking pneumonia,” Mycoplasma pneumoniae bacteria can cause damage to the lining of the respiratory system and is considered contagious if you are in close contact with someone who has it (25). Outbreaks of walking pneumonia are common in crowded places like schools, dormitories, military barracks, nursing homes, and hospitals.
These types of pneumonia are harder to diagnose through standard bacterial identification methods. They also can cause slightly different symptoms, appear differently in chest x-rays, or respond to antibiotics differently than the more typical types of pneumonia (26). Some atypical types can be caused by the following bacteria:
- Chlamydia pneumoniae – This is a type of bacteria that causes respiratory infections in children, that usually leads to mild pneumonia or bronchitis (3). Some people may be infected by this bacteria and have mild or no symptoms. Sometimes it is also referred to as Chlamydophila pneumoniae.
- Chlamydia psittaci – Also known as psittacosis, this bacteria is known for infecting birds, but it can sometimes be passed to people (27). It is important to follow good precautions while cleaning and handling birdcages to help avoid this infection. It can cause a mild respiratory illness or pneumonia in people.
- Legionella pneumophila – Legionnaires’ disease is a very serious type of pneumonia to be infected with. It is caused by swallowing or inhaling small water droplets that contain legionella (28). Legionella occurs naturally in lakes and streams, but it becomes a health concern when it grows and spreads in building water systems, air conditioners, and hot tubs that are not properly maintained. According to the CDC, 1 out of 10 people with Legionnaire’s will die from it.
Research on Pneumonia and Cannabis Use
According to a report given at the 2020 CHEST Conference, COPD patients saw a 37.6% reduction in the odds of dying in the hospital in patients with cannabis use (29). In addition, the same COPD patients had an 11.8% lower risk of developing pneumonia.
Another recent study evaluated cannabis use with the risk of pneumonia in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that came with similar results as above. This study checked in with patients at regular six-month intervals over the course of 30 years. Self-reported cannabis smoking daily or weekly did not increase the risk for pneumonia in the control group that included participants without HIV (30). Patients with HIV saw a small increase in the risk of pneumonia, which researchers thought had to do with this group’s compromised immune system combined with the immune-suppressing effects of THC.
Note: Veriheal does not intend to give this as professional medical advice. Do not attempt to self-diagnose, or prescribe treatment based on the information provided on this page. Always consult a physician before making any decision on the treatment of a medical condition.
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Cannabis May Reduce Deadly COVID-19 Lung Inflammation: Researchers Explain Why
Researchers are studying cannabis’ potential as an adjunct treatment for COVID-19.
As COVID-19 cases continue to rise, researchers have started to look for solutions in an unlikely place – the cannabis plant. Cannabis’ active compounds have a number of properties that make it appealing as a potential adjunct treatment for infections from the novel coronavirus, and recently scientists have begun looking at its potential for reducing susceptibility to the disease, and even discussed whether it could be used as an antiviral medication.
This month, researchers from the University of Nebraska and the Texas Biomedical Research Institute are recommending more research into how cannabis-derived CBD might help treat dangerous lung inflammation from the novel coronavirus. The authors detailed the evidence for how cannabis’ anti-inflammatory powers may help in a peer reviewed article in this month’s issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.
In the article, researchers explain that “recent reports have suggested that acute infection is associated with a cytokine superstorm, which contributes to the symptoms of fever, cough, muscle pain.” These extreme instances of inflammation can lead to severe pneumonia which clog up the lungs, make breathing difficult or impossible. So, one of the important strategies that scientists are studying in the fight against COVID-19 is reducing inflammation.
In particular, researchers are looking at drugs which reduce IL-6 cytokine activity. In a recent study, one such drug, Tocilizumab, was able to clear out patients’ lungs, and resulted in recovery for 90% of the patients treated. Unfortunately, it also produced serious negative side effects like inflammation of the pancreas and hypertriglyceridemia (a risk factor for coronary artery disease). This has led researchers to continue the search for anti-inflammatory strategies – preferably ones that aren’t as harsh on these already critically ill patients.
Cannabis can be smoked in its raw form, or infused into tinctures like this one.
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That’s where cannabis comes in. The authors explain that several cannabinoids in the cannabis plant have anti-inflammatory properties. In particular, they point to CBD as the most likely candidate for treating COVID-19 related inflammation. CBD has shown serious anti-inflammatory properties in previous studies, it doesn’t create the disorienting psychotropic effects associated with cannabis’ most common chemical THC, and it has already been approved by the FDA as safe for children with intractable epilepsy. If successful at reducing inflammation for COVID-19 patients, it could be a safer alternative to other anti-inflammatory options.
Why do researchers believe CBD can help with COVID-19, specifically?
For one thing, the authors explain that previous research has shown that CBD can reduce a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, the one reduced by other drugs being studied for COVID-19. CBD was also shown to reduce interleukin (IL)-2, IL-1α and β, interferon gamma, inducible protein-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and tumor necrosis factor-α – all of which are associated with the pathology of severe cases of COVID-19. In addition to reducing these pro-inflammatory cytokines, CBD has also been shown to increase the production of interferons, a type of signaling protein that activates immune cells and prevents viruses from replicating.
Previous research also supports the idea that CBD can specifically reduce lung inflammation. In an animal study on asthma, CBD was able to reduce production of proinflammatory cytokine production, actually reducing airway inflammation. In the same study CBD also reduced pulmonary fibrosis – a condition where lung tissue becomes damaged and scarred, thickening lung tissue and making breathing more difficult. This is important, because COVID-19 can also leave patients with serious pulmonary fibrosis.
The authors also note that CBD isn’t the only cannabinoid that shows promise as an anti-inflammatory medicine. THC has also shown powerful anti-inflammatory results, but it’s less well tolerated than CBD, with common symptoms like disorientation, anxiety, and increased heart rate. Research on CBD, on the other hand, shows it to be safe and well-tolerated with dosing as high as 1500 mg a day, for a period of up to two weeks. The authors explain that this “suggests its feasibility to reduce SARS-CoV2 induced lung inflammation/ pathology and disease severity.”
NEW YORK, NEW YORK – MAY 05: A sign placed outside a CBD store in Murray Hill during the coronavirus . [+] pandemic on May 5, 2020 in New York City. (Photo by Noam Galai/Getty Images)
While negative side effects are minimal with CBD, the article’s authors point out that CBD may have a side benefit for patients with the disease – reduced anxiety. “The many uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 pandemic such as status of the economy, employment and loss of connection can fuel depression, fear and anxiety” they explain, pointing out that the increased inflammation in COVID-19 may also trigger increased levels of anxiety. But CBD has shown serious promise for the management of anxiety, and may help reduce these challenging levels of stress.
No peer reviewed studies to date show that cannabis or its compounds can help with COVID-19 specifically, but the authors of this article say the evidence suggesting that it may help is worth further investigation. They recommend that scientists begin studies to investigate whether CBD can be used to reduce inflammation and anxiety in COVID-19 cases, as an adjunct to antiviral medications.
While this doesn’t suggest cannabis should be considered a cure or treatment of COVID-19 on its own, it does suggest that it may have potential to help bring down inflammation and reduce anxiety in those suffering from the disease. But until more studies are done, this is just a well-supported theory. Direct experimentation is needed to bring us real answers.